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从意识形态视角看张爱玲的翻译_图文

时间:2012-07-15

湖南师范大学 硕士学位论文 从意识形态视角看张爱玲的翻译 姓名:郭雅力 申请学位级别:硕士 专业:英语语言文学 指导教师:蒋洪新 20100401





张爱玲是二十世纪中国文坛最富盛名的传奇女作家。自从上个世 纪四十年代以来,张爱玲的批评与研究就从未间断过,甚至愈演愈烈。 “张热”逐渐从学术界蔓延到普通读者。1995年张爱玲的悄然辞世, 再度掀起一阵“张热"。各种研究张爱玲的作品相继问世,她本人的 很多散佚的作品不断地被整理,发掘和出版。事实上张爱玲身为一个 杰出女作家的同时,也是一个优秀的翻译家。然而,学术界对张爱玲 的研究大多局限于对她的文学创作领域,对张爱玲文学翻译的研究却 鲜有人涉及。 西方翻译研究早在二十世纪中期以来就不再局限于文本本身,而 开始将翻译与文化语境联系起来研究。这为翻译研究提供了全新的视 角。勒菲弗尔是翻译研究派的代表人物之一,他将翻译活动纳入文化 系统研究,探讨了意识形态,诗学以及赞助人对译者在翻译文本的选 择和翻译策略的选择上所产生的影响,提出翻译即是改写的著名论 断。不同的时代,不同的译者,所处的文化环境和历史背景不同,便 会有不同的意识形态倾向。译者总是通过操纵手段使译本符合目的语 读者的意识形态和诗学传统以确保其尽可能被更多的读者接受。偶尔 也有译者会反其道而行之,采取抵抗式翻译策略,而不去迎合主流意 识形态。中国翻译传统悠久,但翻译研究和理论长期集中在翻译的标 准、技巧等方面,对翻译主体缺乏系统研究。国内对于勒菲弗尔操纵 理论的研究也主要集中于意识形态对翻译实践的影响,很少有人涉及 诗学。本文尝试结合勒菲弗尔的理论对张爱玲的译作进行文本分析。 本文结合张爱玲不同时期的译作,包括张爱玲所翻译的美国文学 作品,中国文学作品,体裁包括她所翻译的小说和诗歌,通过从意识

形态视角分析同一译者在不同时期的翻译实践来进一步验证勒菲弗 尔的理论。在文本分析部分,作者运用描述分析法对张爱玲的翻译作 品与原文本及其他人的译本进行细致对比分析。目的在于揭示不同社 会文化环境中的意识形态,诗学以及赞助人是如何作用于译者翻译实 践的。从而得出结论:译者的翻译实践或多或少会受意识形态的影响。 意识形态因素影响翻译者的选材,翻译策略的选择等等。甚至翻译作 品在社会上的反响在很大程度上是受制于某个特定时期的意识形态 的。翻译作品的形成与流行是译者自身的意识形态、赞助人的意识形 态、社会主流意识形态等各种因素共同作用的结果,差别是何时何地 哪种因素占上风。评价一个译者不能简单地从他的译作受欢迎与否来 做论断,应该要把他的翻译实践放在一定的社会历史背景之中,做出 客观的评价。本文不仅再一次验证了勒菲弗尔的理论,同时也是对张 爱玲翻译研究的一种拓展。

关键词:张爱玲;意识形态;诗学;赞助人

Ab stract

Eileen Chang was the most outstanding legendary female writer in the twentieth
on

century

in China.Since the 1 940s,criticisms and researches

Eileen Chang have not been interrupted,but have become increasingly
to

fierce.The fever of Eileen Chang has spread from the academic circle

ordinary

readers.Eileen Chang’S death in 1 995 raised another fever.All
as

kinds of works dealing with Eileen Chang published successively
as

well

many of her own works which have
all

not been found before.In fact,
as

Eileen Chang was

excellent translator
on

well

as an

outstanding writer.

However,academic researches
the field of her

Eileen Chang have been confined in few scholars have touched upon her

literary creation.Veq

literary translation.

As early
west

as

the middle twentieth

century,translmion

studies in the which

have begun to


integrate translation with culture
on

context

provided

brand new perspective for researches

translation.Andrew

Lefevere,one representative of the Translation Studies School,brought

translation activities into researches

on

culture system,discussed how

social and cultural factors affect translators’choice of the original texts and translation strategies.He also proposed the celebrated thesis that

translation Was environments

rewriting.Different

translators

in

different

cultural

and historical backgrounds have different ideological
accepted by more
to

tendencies.In order to make their translations be

readers,translators always trying
target language

to

make their translations

fit for the

readers’ideology and

poetics.Occasionally,some

translators will

oppositely adopt



strategy


of resistant

translation.

Although Chinese translmion study has
on

long tradition,it only focused

translation

criteria,translation
on

techniques

and

SO

on,lacking
scholars who
on

systematic researches

translation

subj ects.In China

studied Lefevere’S manipulation theory always focusing
hardly any people have touched
on

ideology,

poetics.This thesis tries to.analyze
Lefevere’S

Eileen Chang’S translation under the guidance of Andrew

theory.
Based
on

Eileen Chang’S translated works

of different periods

including the American literature works and Chinese literature works
whose genres Lefevere’S
cover

from novels

to

poems,this thesis tries


to

prove

theory

again by analyzing

translator’S practice of different
texts


time from the ideological perspective.In the part of
author
uses a

analyses,the comparative

descriptive-explanatory method

to

make

analyse with Eileen Chang’S translated works,the original texts and other

translators’translations in detail.The purpose is

to reveal how

ideology,

poetics,and patronage affect translators’translation practice in different
social and cultural environments.The conclusion iS that


translator’S

translation practice was more
Ideological influences affect the translator’S choice


or

less affected by ideological influences.

translator’S selection of the original texts, and
SO

of translation strategies
or

on.Even the iS under the

reflection of



translator and his

her translated

works

control of the ideology of a certain time.The receptions and popularity of

translated works

are

affected by all kinds of factors such

as

the dominant

ideology,the ideology
and
SO

of patronages and the ideology of the translator
which is the

on.It depends

on

very

factor that gets the upper hand.

So we
one’S

can not

draw

an

inference simply according to the reactions of should put
one’S

translated

works.We

translation practice in
an



certain historical social background and make

impersonal comment.

This thesis
researches

not only proves Lefevere’S theory
on

again,but also develops

Eileen Chang.

Key Words:Eileen Chang;ideology;poetics;patronage

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An Ideological Perspective

on

Eileen Chang’S Translation

Introduction

In this thesis,the author attempts to make translation Lefevere.



study of Eileen Chang’S
by Andrew

from

the

perspective

of

ideology suggested

0.1

Motivation
As
an

and Significance

excellent female novelist in the modem literature history of
on

China,researches

Eileen Chang’S writing have been


an

overheated

topic both in China and abroad.However,as

skillful translator,Eileen


Chang has

not

received



good and fair reception yet.For


rather long

period,Eileen Chang has been
Hardly any of her translated

taboo in Chinese literature history.
has been circulated in
to

works

Chinese literature

mainland.In fact,Eileen Chang has made great contributions

translation of China.She also has her own unique style in translating.She
not

only translated American literature works into Chinese,but also
even

translated her own novels into English.She

translated literature

works of
role
as a

Wu—dialect

into mandarin Chinese.However,Eileen Chang’S

translator has been largely ignored which caused by

some

ideological influences during her life time.Today,Eileen Chang has been dead for more than


decade.There appeared
oversea



fever of Eileen Chang
to

again.Many scholars and

students began

do researches

on

Eileen Chang.Most of Eileen
are on

Chang’S newly discovered literature

works


sale.People rushed to buy Eileen


Chang’S works.As there is

big



in la on Eileen Chang,researches on Eileen hang aresearches gS’gnahC

hang S

MA Thesis

translation practice rough discussion
on

are

needed very much.This thesis tries to make
an



Eileen Chang’S translation practice in
an

aspect of

ideology.This research is

attempt

to probe into the reasons of Eileen

Chang’s selection of original works and translation strategies,even the bad receptions which Eileen Chang’S translated works have received and Eileen Chang herself has received
as a

translator.

Theoretically speaking,this study is guided by Andrew Lefevere’S

theory.He

moved away from polysystem terminology to consider the role

of ideology and patronage in the system of translated focus
on

literature.With

its

describing,analyzing and explaining translation activities,the
to

research is expected

finally result in



better understanding of the

effects of ideology,poetics and patronage

on

translation

activities.

0.2 Scope of Study
This paper conducts


detailed

analysis

based

on

the

works

translated by Eileen Chang.As Eileen Chang has written bilingual works,many of which mingled



great many

translation

and writing,and

were written and published overseas,the clarification of her translation

works and

her literary creation has proved to be complicated.Based
on

on

the previous researches tries to make


Eileen Chang’S translation practice,this thesis

rough classification of her

translations including

her

translation of American literature by others and her own literature

works,Chinese works.Nearly

literature works written all of Eileen Chang’S

translated
ada.I=

works

are

discussed

or

referred to in this thesis except for her


of of some film scnpts Elleen Chang’S translation lm noitatoaecitcarppractice "pts.Eile‘ Chang s


I‘S

divided chronically into three phases in this thesis.



An Ideological Perspective

on

Eileen Chang’s Translation

0.3 Approaches and Arrangements
In this paper,the author adopts the western translation theorist Andre Lefevere’S theory to study
out the

Eileen

Chang’S

translation activities.The

author tries

tO

find

major

factors influencing Eileen Chang’S

translation practice from the aspects of ideology,poetics and patronage. A descriptive—explanatory method along with
case

study is adopted

in this research.It is basically qualitative analysis.The analysis is applied based
on a

comparative study of the original novel,Eileen Chang’S and

other translators’translations of the same original text.The social and cultural factors of the original
texts are

compared with the dominant

social and cultural factors and Eileen Chang’S own ideology to find out why she was motivated to undertake those translation
ore

projects.And
to

sampled examples from those translated
social and cultural factors influence

texts

used

show how

Eileen Chang’S

selection of the

original works,her choice of translation,and the reception of her translated works. Concretely speaking,this thesis consists of three chapters,besides
the

introduction and the conclusion.The

introduction

includes

the

motivation,significance,scope,approach and arrangement of the thesis. The first chapter is
at


literature review of the study of Eileen Chang both

home and abroad.The second chapter deals with Andrew Lefevere’S

theory.The third chapter is the application of Andrew Lefevere’S
to the

theory

study of Eileen Chang’S translation,in which Andrew Lefevere’S

theory,factors influencing Eileen Chang’S translation

and

case

study of

Eileen Chang’S translated works

are

probed into details.This chapter is

the central part of the thesis.Then comes the conclusion of the thesis,that



MAThesis

is,Eileen Chang’S translation practice was greatly influenced by these ideological translator
as

factors.That well
as a

is why Eileen

Chang did not succeed

as



novelist.



An Ideological Perspective

on

Eileen Chang’S Translation

C hapter One Literature Review

Eileen

Chang(1 920—1 995),an

outstanding woman writer of the very
rare

in the

history of Chinese literature,was who got


one

bilingual writers

good reputation among readers ofboth language environments. Chang’S life experience was different from that


Eileen

of other

Chinese scholars.She was born into Shanghai.She got


declining aristocrat family in
culture

good

education of Chinese traditional

because of this family background.But Eileen Chang’S childhood was nearly


nightmare

to her.In 1 93 1,Eileen Chang attended

St.Mary’S

Hall

Girls’School in Shanghai.In 1939 Eileen Chang went to the University of Hong Kong and began to learn English.This period of study had well shaped her into


master of English language,preparing her for later
in 1 94 1,the

writing and translation.After the Pearl Harbor Incident

Japanese army attacked Hong Kong.Eileen Chang quit school and went back to Shanghai.She began to write for some English magazines to

make



living.In the next few years,Eileen Chang experienced the
career

noontide of her writing

and the happiest period with Hu Lancheng

(胡兰成)in
began
to

her life.In

1 952,Eileen Chang went to Hong Kong and

work for the United States Information Service.Three years

later,she left Hong Kong for the United States.There she married her

second husband Ferdinand Reyher.In 1 995,Eileen Chang died in her apartment in Los Angeles.
Due to her special educational and living background,Eileen Chang

formed



unique character and her own way of viewing the world.She



MA Thesis

did translate



lot,but she did

not

make



name in the history of Chinese

translation.In the following,study of Eileen Chang both in China and abroad
are

briefly reviewed.

1.1 Previous Research

on

Eileen Chang

as a

Writer


Eileen Chang who wrote many excellent novels which draw

lot of

readers’attentions attracted
scholars
as

immediate

attention

of

the

prestigious

early

as

her first appearance in the literary circle in China.
as

Since the 1940s,scholars such
have begun to study who made
a on

Fu

Lei(傅雷),Tan Chengbi(谭成壁)
one

Eileen Chang’S works.Fu Lei was the first

comment

on

Eileen Chang’S works in public.He confirmed

Eileen Chang’S writing skills and sharply criticized that Eileen Chang
overly cared the superficial writing cleverness but neglected the theme of her works.Nearly at the same time,Hu Lancheng also published two short articles discussing Eileen Chang.Those researchers only focused
on

Eileen Chang’S novel writing
Hong Kong

at that

time.In 1 952,Eileen Chang went
to

to

and

then

settled in the United States.Due

her

two

controversy novels The Rice-sprout Song and The Naked Earth which were written under the commi ssion of the United States Information

Service,Eileen Chang has mainland for


been

remained



taboo in the Chinese
never

few decades.Eileen Chang has of Chinese literature until

appeared in any

modem history

the middle of the 1 980s

because of political

and historic causes.So
or

researchers who study Eileen

Chang

of that time were all from abroad Lin

Taiwan,with

C.T.Hsia(夏志

清),Shui Jing(水晶)and
Their researches focused
on

Yiliang(林以亮)as representatives.

the position in the history of Chinese modem



An

ldeological Perspective

on

Eileen Chang’s Translation

literature Eileen Chang’S literary works occupied,the theme and art of Eileen Chang’S literary works.Although they overrated Eileen Chang’S talents and techniques,they did develop the research ideas of Fu。Lei,Tan

Chengbi

and Hu

Lancheng

in

the

1 940s.Researchers

in

Taiwan Tuo

represented by Tang

Wenbiao(唐文标),Lin Boyan(林柏燕),Wang

(王拓)criticized

Eileen Chang’S works unfairly.Comments of this
too

period were blended with

much strong emotion.
on

After the middle of the 1 980s,researches the rise.Researchers tried to build

Eileen Chang were

on

complete independent systems of

theory.More

and more theses and research monographs were written.
as

Researchers made breakthroughs in many researching fields such

the

horizon,the method,and the level of analysis.The earliest serious book
on

the history of Chinese literature giving



place to Eileen Chang was

The Thirty Years

of

Chinese

Modern Literature(《中国现代文学三十 University,Qian
Liqun was

年》)CO?authored

by three professors of Peking

(钱理群),Wen Rumin(温儒敏)and Wu Fuhui(吴福辉),which


starting poim in the study of Eileen Chang in the Chinese mainland.The


later part of the 1 980s witnessed

fever of Eileen Chang.A series of

academic papers

on

her,various editions of Eileen Chang’S biographies

and memoirs and newly discovered literary works in Eileen Chang’S early days published.The most influential research papers
were written by Ke
on

Eileen Chang

Ling(柯灵),Chen Zishan(陈子善),Jin Hongda+(金

宏达),Yu Bin(余斌),Shao Yingjian(邵迎建),etc.In universities of
North America,students have been writing dissertations since l 970s.
After Eileen
on

Eileen Chang

Chang passed

away

in 1 995

in the United

States,



MA Thesis

another fever

on

research of Eileen Chang emerged.Oversea researchers

began to analyze Eileen Chang’S works with

Modem Westem
on

Literary how to

Theory and made lots of beneficial explorations and attempts

develop the scope and depth of their researches.In the United States, many scholars devoted themselves
as on

the research of Eileen Chang such

Li

Oufan(李欧梵),Wang Dewei(王德威),Si Maxin(司马新)and SO Xingqian(林幸谦),Gao Quanzhi(高全之),Cai
good papers
on

on.In recent years,Lin

Dengshan(蔡登山)wrote some very
January

Eileen Chang.By

20 1 0,there have been 20 1 7 pieces of articles with Eileen Chang

in the title in China Academic Journal,20 1 pieces of

Master

Theses and 6


pieces of PhD Theses in CNKI.Eileen Chang has become topic in Chinese academic circle.

very

hot

1.2 Previous Research

on

Eileen C hang

as a

Translator

Compared with the fanatical

status in researches on Eileen Chang’S

literary

creation and her writing style and
are

techniques,researches

on

Eileen Chang’S translation translated many

still in the infant stage.Eileen Chang has

literary

works of her own and others,but very few
or

scholars paid attention to her translations.No monographs Chinese translation publishing

papers until

on

history

has

mentioned Eileen
The

Chang

the

of An Introduction to

History of
Li

Chin'ese

Translation

Literature edited by

Meng Zhaoyi(孟昭毅)and book

Zaidao(李载道)in
as a

the year 2005.In this

Eileen Chang was introduced

translator

officially

for the first time in

history.But for

lack of materials there were

only four pages about Eileen Chang’S translation.Only five pieces of

Master

Theses

and

one

PhD

Thesis

dealing with

Eileen

Chang’S



An

Ideologica!Perspective

on

Eileen

9hang’s

Translation

translation

carl

be searched in CNKI.A published PhD Thesis with the
can

title of Self-translation Approaches to Tranlation Studies the market in Chinese mainland.Although in Taiwan researches
on

be found

on

and

Hong Kong

Eileen Chang’S translation started earlier than that of the

Chinese mainland,it was still very shallow and inadequate.An American scholar,Karen Kingsbury in Taiwan Donhai University specialized in

translating papers on“research

on

Eileen Chang”,but

never

probed into

Eileen Chang’S translation practice.Professor He

Xingfeng(何杏凤)in
on

the Chinese University of Hong Kong also devoted herself

researches

of Eileen Chang including Eileen Chang’S translation,but Eileen Chang’S
translation of American literature and included.Liu

Hai

Shang

Hua

Lie Zhuan

are not

Shaoming(刘绍铭)in

Hong Kong has discussed Eileen


Chang’S translation in his articles published in Hong Kong.In 2006,this article was collected in

literary magazine

in

one

of his book,but this Xiaoying

book has

not entered into the library

and market in

China.Wang

(王晓莺)in

Hong Kong

Baptist University has published two short

articles in Chinese Translators Journal and Foreign Language and
Literature in the past two years.Because of language barrier,scholars in North America could not go further in intensive study
on

Eileen Chang’S

translation.
To sum up,there is As Professor


big gap in systematic research

on

Eileen Chang.
Chang’S

Wang Dewei(王德威)pointed
not

out that Eileen

translation should

be neglected.Professor Chen

Zishan(陈子善)in

East China Normal University has said that we need to flll the gap in the research
on

Eileen Chang’S translation.This thesis tries
on an

to

discuss Eileen

Chang’S translation

ideological perspective.



An Ide—ological Perspective

on

Eileen Chang’S Translation

Chapter Two Lefevere’s Theory

Andrew

Lefevere(1

94卜1 996),was the leading theoretician in the
can

field of literary translation during his time.He believes that it reflect the complexity of translation if discussion is confined

not

to

the

language level.He believes that among all the restrictions translation suffers the restriction from language is the least important.However, understanding about tradition and ideology will enable only
on US to

focus not

conventional problems of translation,but also

on

how to promote

the entire cultural research effectively.

The most important thing is not how words

are

matched

on

the

page,but why they

are

matched that way,what social,literary,
as

ideological considerations led translators to translate what they hoped to achieve by translating they
can as

they did,

they did,whether

be said

to have achieved their goals or

not,and why.’’

(Lefevere

2004:8 1)

Lefevere’S

new

approach

to

the

study

of translation

represents

the

revolutionary turning point in the study of the phenomenon of translation within


well,defined cultural

context.

2.1 Theoretical Background:Cultural Turn
Traditionally,translation studies
concentrate
on

the

study

of

linguistic and textual analysis.However,after the.1 970s,translation

MA Thesis

studies went beyond language and focused

on

the interaction between

translmion and culture.“The studied is the
text

obj ect of study have been redefined;what is
source

embedded in its network of both

and target
to

cultural signs and in this way translation studies have been able both
utilize the linguistic approach and to move Lefevere 2004:1 23)This

beyond it.”(Bassnett& Cultural Turn’’in

shift was

called‘‘the

translation studies.The Cultural Turn in translation studies in the west

brought about

new

dimensions and approaches.The

target-oriented

approach,resulting from this shift,foregrounds the cultural identities and roles of translators in the translation process.Early pioneers focused
on

the emphasis of the influence
effect to

to

translation from target culture,while the lett untouched until the

target culture from translation was

emergence of cultural turn proponents.
In 1 985,The

Manipu肠fion of Literature

edited by Theo Hermans

appeared.In this anthology,“Manipulation School’’appeared for the first time.The manipulation school is represented mainly by scholars such Andre Lefevere,Jose Lambert,Mary Snell-Hornby and
as

Theo

Hermans,

aU of whom are from Dutch—speaking countries,but also includes Susan Bassnett in England and some Israeli scholars such approach of
as

Gideon Toury.The
the concept of the and the

the‘‘Manipulation School’’is based

on

literary polysystem,.which derives from Russian Formalists

Prague Structuralists.A
studies came in the

real

breakthrough in the field of translation with the collection of essays
on

1 990s

entitled

Constructing Culture,Essays
Bassnett

Literary

Translation,CO—edited by

and Lefevere.It

was then the‘‘Cultural Turn’’was

officially

asserted.

12

An Ideological Perspective——o——rl E——il——ee—n——C—h—a—rl—g—'—s—T——ra—n—s—l—at—i—o—n—

The Cultural historical translators

Tum in

translation studies emphasizes the cultural,

and ideological
are never

dimensions of translation,highlighting that
one

innocent and their work is marked,in

way

or

another,by the time and cultures in which they live and by the power
relations that operate in the

various cultures.Cultural Tum has its own
Theory
to

evolution,from

Polysystern

gender-oriented

and

postcolonial approaches.In fact,Cultural Turn is the metaphor adopted

by cultural studies oriented translation theories

to refer to the analysis context.

of

translation in its cultural,political,and ideological

2.2 Three Important Factors
Andrew Lefevere’S approach to translation was prepared in the

1 970s,developed in the 1 980s and widely spread in the 1 990s.He has

been greatly influenced by two celebrated translation theorists:One is
Gideon Toury and his descriptive and target—oriented approach,the other is Even。Zohar and his Polysystern Theory.Under the influence of the

former one,Lefevere developed his own descriptive and target—oriented
approach.Under the influence of the latter one,Lefevere developed his own translation

theory and began

to

study translation in



system of

system---culture.
According to Lefevere,the manipulation of translation includes three

aspects:ideology,patronage manipulators of the

and poetics.On

the

one

hand,translators

are

source text

and the target readers;on the other hand,

translators themselves

are

manipulated by the dominant ideology,poetics


and patronage.So,translations become social institutions such
as

very important

literary

tool that
or even

educational systems,publishing

firms

MA Thesis

governments

use to

manipulate



given society in order

to construct the
or

kind of culture desired.Ideology is imposed by the patrons,publishers

other institutions.The translator is caught between his own adherence and the ideologies in the receptor language and translators must not produce translations
source

language.What’S more,
counter to

running

the ideology

in the receptor culture.The second factor is poetics.In translation studies, poetics is the role
Once
a a

literary system plays within the larger social system.
exerts


poetics


shaped,it

tremendous

influence

on

the

development of
another

literary system.Besides ideology and
constraint

poetics,there is

important

named patronage.Patronage

performs

mostly outside the literary system.On the basis of manipulation theory,
Lefevere moves original
on

and claims that translation is
also shows



rewriting of the

text.Lefevere

how all rewritings operate under culture.

constraints of poetic

norms and ideological beliefs in the target

To sum up,in Lefevere’S view,translation is the rewriting of the

originals,and manipulated all the time by three
poetics and patronage.That’S the
core

parameters--ideology,
Manipulation Theory

concept of

proposed by Andrew Lefevere.

2.2.1 Ideology
—The word“ideology'’was originally coined by Destutt de Tracy in 1 8‘h


French philosopher,

century.‘‘ideology'’is defined as‘‘(set of)ideas
or

that from the basis of an economic

political theory

or

that

are

held by



particular group

or

person”.(Oxford Advanced

Learner’S

Dictionary

1 997:734)However,the concept of“ideology'’is also adopted by some scholars in


negative way to refer to“a system of wrong,false,distorted

14

An Ideological Perspective

on

Eileen Chang’S Translation

or

otherwise

misguided


beliefs’’Philadelphi:Multilingual

Matters



996:737)As
an

special element of the social superstructure,ideology

plays

important political role during the human history.In the research

fields of philosophy and culture,the term‘‘ideology'’is used all the while

from positive and negative aspects.Lefevere prefers

to

u se

this word in



positive way.He approves of Fredric Jameson’S view‘‘Ideology would
seen to

be that grillwork of form,convention,and belief which orders 1 974:1 07)In


o,ur

action."(Jamson
seen

cross—cultural context,ideology

can

be

as;‘‘The conceptual


grid that consists


of opinions and attitudes certain time,and through 2004:1 6)In
one

deemed acceptable in

certain society at

which readers and translators approach
of Lefevere’S essays he described

texts.’’(Lefevere

ideology

as‘‘the conceptual grid that


consists of opinions and attitudes deemed acceptable in
at


certain society

certain time,and through which readers and translators approach definitions,Lefevere

texts'’.(Bssnett&Lefevere 2004:48)Whatever
shows
US

that

ideology is held by



particular group

or

person,or there exist both the

individual ideology and the dominant ideology,which is notion of power;in some
cases

relevant

to the

the individual ideology equals to the

dominant ideology,in

which

case

the dominant

ideology
cases

is what the the individual

individual translator‘willingly embraces’;but in most

ideology is in the control of the dominant

ideology
on

and that is why

ideology ideology

is described鹤constraint that is imposed

imposed

the individual translator;

on

the individual translator as

constraints

is

largely presented in the sphere of politics,(彭亚芳2005:45)

15

MA Thesis

Dominant ideology is the systematic understanding of the world and society of


certain class,career and party.It includes factors such

as

politics,philosophy,ethics,conventions,aesthetics,dominant attitudes
and opinions etc.Individual ideology refers to the translator’S personal character,aesthetic preference and philosophy,etc.In the process of

translation,each translator has
the dominant

to balance his or her personal ideology and
on

ideology imposed

him

or

her by the society and culture.

Ideological control of translation determines the translator’S choice of the
text to

be translated and shapes his

or

her translation strategies.

2.2.2 Poetics
Another constraint which operates
on

translation is poetics.For

Lefevere,“poetics is the dominant concept of what literature should be,
or

can

be allowed to be,in
as a



given

society.”(Lefevere

2004:1 4)He also

thinks of it

code which makes literary communication possible. Lefevere,poetics consists includes of two

(Hermans

2004:1 27)According to

components:(a)literary

devices,which

genres,motifs, concept of

prototypical characters and situations,and

symbols;(b)the

what the role of literature is,or should be,in the social system.(Lefevere

2004:26)The dominant poetics of a certain period is either embraced by
the translator using poetics
or

is enforced by individuals,groups and institutions by the yardstick against which
current

as

production

is

measured.If the original is

too bluntly opposed to the

dominant poetics in

the target culture,the translator will have to adapt it to make it deemed acceptable to the poetics of explains:‘‘Translators often


certain time and place.Just
to recast the

as

Lefevere of the

try

original in

terms

16

An Ideological Perspective

on

Eileen Chang’s Translation

poetics

of their own culture,simply

to

make it pleasing

to

the new

audience and,in doing

SO,to ensure that the translation will actually bc

read."(Lefevre 2004:26)At

the same time,translators also frequently

use

their translations to influence the evolution of the poetics of their time.As Lefevere said,

The compromises translators find between the poetics of the original and the poetics of their culture provide fascinating insights into the process of acculturation

and

incontrovertible evidence of the extent of the power of



given

poetics.(Lefevere 2004:26)

Lefevere’S division of ideology and poetics had been challenged by other

scholars.Wang

Dongfeng,a Chinese scholar,argued that

as



concept system of art and aesthetics,poetics still belongs to the notion of ideology.And

Wang Dongfeng


is not the only

one

who believes that

poetics should be

branch of ideology.Lefevere himself also found that
to be

ideology and poetics was rather difficult interact with each other frequently.
The functional component of


distinguished

as

the two

poetics is obviously closely tied to
as

ideological influences from outside the sphere of the poetics

such,and

generated by ideological forces in the environment of the literary system.

(Lefevere

1 992:27)Today,the complex concepts of ideology and poetics

still bring some debates when Lefevere’S terminology and methodology is in use.And this is
not the

key problem

to

be discussed here.

MAThesis

2.2.3 Patronage
Besides ideology and poetics,there is another important constraint that determines translation---patronage.Lefevere introduced the concept of‘'patronage’’to his model in order to better investigate ideological pressures
on

translators

in‘‘That

Structure

in the

Dialect

of

Man

Interpreted’’in the year 1 984.He described‘‘patronage’’as‘‘any kind of force that
can

be influential in encouraging and propagating,but also in

discouraging,censoring and destroying works of 1 984:92)

literature.”(Lefeveie

The Russian Formalists view



culture
as

as a

complex“system of system’’
technology.
not

composed of various subsystems such

literature,science,and phenomena relate
to

Within
in


this general system,extraliterary

literature

piecemeal fashion

but嬲an

interplay among

subsystems

determined

by the logic ofthe culture to which they

belong.(Steiner

1 984:1 l 2)

In Lefevere’S opinion,the literary system possesses



double control

mechanism。In other words,there exerted
literary
on a

are

two types of control mechanism

literary system.One mechanism keeps order within the
and is represented and by the‘‘professionals’’such
as

system

translators=critics,reviewers intervention
can

teachers.Those
a text or ensure

professionals’ that the way in
or

determine the shape of

which it is perceived fits in with the generally accepted beliefs
or

approved

opinions.The

other

mechanism is

what

Lefevere

terms
can

“patronage’’.Patronage

operates
as a

mostly from the outside.It
as a

be

exerted by individuals such

monarch;groups such

religious body

18

An Ideological Perspective

On

Eileen Chang’s Translation

or a

political party;or institutions such
are

as

publishing house the

or

school

systems.There

three

elements

to status

patronage:ideological

component,economic component and
component constrains the choice

component.The ideological
the

of

subj ect and
concerns

form of

its

presentation.The economic component and rewriters such
as

the payment of writers

royalty payment and translator’S fees.The status
are to

component refers that writers and rewriters
expectatlons.

conform to the patron’S

Patronage is mostly interested in ideology of literature than in its poetics.Pmronage rarely intervenes in the literary system directly.It tends
to delegate control tO professionals whose task is to secure the

system’S

ideology and poetics.In most cases,it is the publisher who determines the choice of social factors

and the kinds of translations

to

produce.

‘‘Translators tend to have relatively little freedom in their dealing with patrons,at least if they want
to

have

their translations published.’’

(Lefevere

2004:1

9)If not the writing

of literature,at least the distribution
can

of it.The influence of patronage is of course immense as it

determine

the way



literary system

develops.

19

An Ideological Perspective

Oil

Eileeil Chang’S Translation

Chapter Three Ideological Influence

on

Eileen

Chang’S Translation

Translation is deal with the



cross-culture communication.Translators not only

source

language and the target language,but also deal with
source

the discrepancies between the

language

culture and the ta唱et

language culture.As
not happen in

Andrew Lefevere has acclaimed that translation do

vacuum.Ideological influence will covertly influence the

translator’S decisions and strategies in the process of translation.Eileen Chang is


typical

translator

who has

been

influenced

largely

by

ideological influence.This chapter is to analyze those social and cultural factors that have influenced Eileen Chang’S translation according to

LefeVere’S theory.

3.1

Maj or

Factors Influencing Eileen Chang’S Translation

For Andrew Lefevere,the most important components of the he developed
on are

theory

ideology,patronage and poetics.Ideological influence

Eileen Chang’S translating practice was mainly from the three aspects, will analyze the ideological influence during Eileen Chang’S life

too.We

time from all these aspects in detail.

3.1.1 Ideology in Eileen Chang’S Time
For Lefevere,ideologies fall into many varieties.There
are

dominant
different

ideology and individual ideology.Different societies have dominant ideologies
at different

times.Dominant ideology

Can

be defined

as

the systematic understanding of the world and society of a certain class, and party.It contains many factors such
as

career

philosophy,conventions,
to

politics,aesthetics

and

SO

on.Individual ideology usually refers

the

translator’S personal character,philosophy,aesthetic preference,or life experience.In the translation process,each translator is the combination

of his
him
or

or

her personal ideology and the dominant ideology imposed

on

her by the society and culture.

3.1.1.1 Social Ideology in China in Eileen Chang’S Time

Since the Opium
revolt and foreign ways to
save

War

in 1 840,China has been suffered with internal patriotic intellectuals began to find

invasion.Many

China out of this mess.Under the influence of the spirit of

May 4m

New Culture

Movement,progressive

intellectuals translated and

introduced advanced foreign literary works and techniques into China to

modernize its culture and economy,which brought the third climax of
translation in China. In 1 93 7 Chinese and Japanese troops entered into full scale war in the Pacific.In 1 939 Germany signs nonaggression pact with Soviet,then invaded Poland,which led to

World War II

in Europe.In 1 94 1,Japanese

attacked Pearl Harbor.The United States entered the war immediately

which-marked the beginning

of

War

of

the

Pacific.During

this
on

rough—and—tumble

period,our brave intellectuals and writers also kept

translating and introducing foreign literature.

The literary translation development The first phase:From the Lu Gou

call

be divided into three phases: Incident to the outbreak of the

Qiao

War

An Ideological Perspective

on

Eileen Chang’s Translation

of Padfic,translation activity focused mainly Union before the war

on

the works of the Soviet

and other

classic works in the world.

The second phase:From the outbreak of the the Anti—Japanese

War

of Pacific to the end of

War,except

for

those

works

mentioned

above,

translation activity focused mainly USA,and the Soviet Union’S

on

the literary works of Britain,the

anti—Fascist literature. Anti—Japanese War to the
year 1 95 1.

The third phase:From the end of the

Besides those works mentioned in the former two phases,translators spent

more efforts

on

translating works of socialism and realism in the Sovia

Union.(孟昭毅&李载道2005:91)

No

sooner

did the Second

World War

end than



cold war began.The

uneasy wartime alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union collapsed completely by the fall nations emerged after of 1 945.The world’S tWO strongest could not bridge their ideological essential human rights,individual

World War II
as

differences

over

basic issues such

liberties.and religious beliefs.As a‘member of Socialist Party China also involved in this cold
war

and

the

fierce

ideology
on

contest.This

enormously affected the translation and researches
all
over

foreign literature

the world.

After the establishment of the People’S Republic of China in 1 949, the

whole Chinese people devoted themselves passionately into the

Chinese Socialist Construction.In the 1 950s,China stood by the side of
the Soviet Union in the ideology contest.Especially after establishing

Compilation and Translation Bureau of the CPC Central Committee in
1 953,whose task is to translate the works of

Marx,Engels,Lenin and

MA Thesis

Stalin,literary

translation

activities

mainly

focused

on

translating

revolutionary literature and
which most of them
are

progressive literature of foreign countries of

from the Soviet Union.

According to statistics,between the year of 1 949 and 1 958,the f.oreign literary books published in
our

country amounted to 1 00 million and 1 000

volumes,over 5300 categories,3526 categories of which are the literature
works of the Soviet Union,accounting for 65.8%,and the amount of the books was 8.205 million volumes,accounting for more than

74.4%.(孔

慧怡&杨承淑2000:145)

Then in 1 966,the Culture Revolution broke out.To Chinese people in the mainland,Culture Revolution was


great calamity,and

SO

it is to

the culture undertaking including translation

industry.During
science

the Culture technology,

Revolution,introducing

about

advanced

and

academic,schools of literature,literary and artistic works of foreign countries were all blocked.“At that time,only works of Marx,Engels, Lenin,Stalin

and Chairman Mao

or

works of revolutionary model theater

were commercially available.Others were all given the label of feudalism,

capitalism,or

revisionism."(孔慧怡&杨承淑2000:1 53).

3.1.1.2 Social Ideology in the United States in Eileen Chang’S Time The twentieth century was unusual to the United States.After

World

War I,there

was

an

economic boom in the United States.However it did by the Great Depression.Then the Second

not last long and was shattered

World War brought America another postwar prosperity.After World War

An Ideological Perspective

on

Efleen Chang’s Translation

II,the United States emerged and became the preeminent military and economic power in the
to recover

world.While much

of Europe and Asia struggled

from the horrific physical devastation of the war,the United

States was virtually unscathed among all the belligerent states.“By 1 955 the United State,with only 6 percent of the world’S population,was producing

well

over

half of the

world’S

goods.”(Tindall&Shi

2000:1060)
However,American’S optimism produced by the postwar prosperity
was very
soon

vitiated

by

the‘‘Cold

War'’and

the

impending

McCarthyism.Joseph Raymond McCarthy,an American
served
as a

politician who

Republican U.S.Senator from 1 947 until his death in 1 957,by

claiming that there were large numbers of Communists and Soviet spies
and sympathizers

inside


the United

States

federal government and

elsewhere,stirred up

nationwide anti-communist movement in America. the United States was
not a


In fact,anti—communism in

flesh

phenomenon.To align with the Communist States was expedient.So
as soon as

just

temporary

the surrender of the Japanese,the unstable

alliance broke up at once.The“Cold the American economy atler

War’cast



pall

over

the revival of

World War II.

‘‘The ideological contest with the Soviet Union and Communist

China produced

numerous

foreign crises

and sparked



domestic

witch—hunt for Communists that far surpassed earlier episodes of political and
social

repression

in

the

nation’s

history…’’(Tindall&Shi

2000:1060)
American people began
to live

in real fear that the Communists were

infiltrating American society.In the early fifties,contest between western

MA Thesis

countries led by the United States and the Communist Countries led by the Soviet Union extended from the realm of ideology to After more realms.


World War II,the

United States found Ihat it was

short-term

effect to fight against the Communist Countries by force.Then it began to
use

culture policy to control other countries.America believed this could

safeguard the country. This was the socio-cultural background in the United States.And the

dominant ideology was anti—communism and culture,religion and democracy.

to

export the American

3.1.1.3 Eileen Chang’S Ideology As most of the scholars in the translation circle had af![irmed that translation process was not

just



direct text conversion,but theorists



subj ective
the


decision?making.Today,Western Marxism
relationship between ideology and.human
as

describe

the inverted image in

camera.Different translator

has

different

ideology

because of the

differences of personal experiences,education backgrounds,etc. Eileen Chang was

born

into

an

illustrious political been
an

family in important

Shanghai.Her

grandfather,Zhang Peilun(张佩纶),had
Late-Qing

official

in the

Dynasty.Her grandmother,Li


Ju’ou(李菊耦), Qing

was the daughter of Li Hongzhang who was Dynasty.Her father,Zhang

famous politician in

Tingzhong(张廷重),though
as all

lived off his

family inheritance and ended up classical

opium addict,was well versed in

Chinese literature and contemporary

Western literature.Her


mother,Huang

Yifan(黄逸梵)

,also came from

famous family in

Hunan

province.

An Ideological Perspective

on

Eileen Chang’s Translation

Eileen Chang began to learn and recite Ancient Chinese Poems with her mother.However,her parents did not get
on

well.When

she was only

three years old,her mother left for Europe.Five years lateL her parents divorced.Then her mother went to French to

learn


canvas.Her father
scar on

remarried.Her parent’S unhappy marriage left

profound

her

mind.That was why Eileen Chang paid much more attention
than

on

females

males.Most

of the themes

of her novels were

the relationship
not get a

between men and women.Usually,the women under her pen did good end.Her dark childhood also
her characteg She held


de印ly affected

her view of life and
can

pessimistic attitude towards life.Readers

find this attitude in nearly all of her literary works.
In 1 93 1,Eileen Chang attended

St.Mary’S

Hall Girls’School in

Shanghai,where all the girls came from rich families.Eileen Chang felt rather inferior among those girls wearing fashionable garments,because she had only several old Chi—pao given by her stepmother.In 1 93 7,Eileen

Chang was held in custody stepmother.She escaped
tO

at home

for six months because of defying her

live with her mother and her aunt.In 1 93 8,

she passed the entrance examination of London University.Unfortunately, her long—term hope of studying abroad was dashed by the outbreak of war

in Europe。Finally,she attended the University of Hong Kong and became
an

English

major.However,her mother’S

money was limited.Although

Eileen Chang was awarded all the two scholarships for students of arts, she was still in straitened circumstances.The students there were mainly

children of rich

overseas

Chinese.This made

Eileen

Chang more

unsociable and eccentric.These experiences made her All she
cares

an individualist.

about was her literary career,her own affairs.Even her

MA Thesis

perspective was person—based.In

one

of her prose she wrote

I don’t know whether other people will shed tears like me when they watch the

Beijing opera

The Ruse

ofEmpty

City.Zhuge

Liang(诸葛亮),who


was

completely trusted by those old Generals,was

rare perfect mall

at all

times and in all lands.His mustache turned white because of busy affairs, He dropped his leisure life in

Wolonggang

and entered politics.Just for the

ex‘emperor’s grace,Zhuge Liang dsked his life to help the
successor

weak—minded

to the throne.Did he feel a little unworthy

privately7.(司马新&

徐斯1996:30)


As Si

Maxin said,“Eileen

Chang was totally

an

individualist.She

believed people should not trouble each other.She was always trying to solve everything by herself to avoid troubling

others."(司马新&徐斯
any

1 996:1 5 1)Even in her golden days,she seldom met

visitors.As Eva

Hung(孔慧怡)wrote

in

one

ofher book,

In her personal life Chang wag solitary habits were well known



loner,and ultimately,a hermit...Her when she was only in her twenties.
an

even

After her husband Reyher’S death,Eileen Chang led

increasingly

hermitic existence.When she died in 1 995 in her OWn flat in L.A.,her body Was
not

discovered until



few days

later.(Eva Hung 2000:8)

Eileen Chang’S painting talent showed up when she was still



little

child.She

even

hesitated because she did
as

not know

which to choose

between music and painting

her career.The first time,Eileen Chang’S

An Ideological Perspective

011

Eileen Chang’S Translation

works published in



magazine was neither her novel

nor

her prose,but

her painting.As she wrote,“The first time I earned money was when 1 was in


middle sch001.I drew

a cartoon

and contributed

to an English

paper called Darnel Evening Paper.The newspaper I bought


office

gave me 5 yuan.

small Danqi lipstick

at

once.”(qtd.in陈子善2004:203)Later

on,Eileen Chang had painted some iconography for her own books which
can

still be found nowadays.Painting endowed her with




keen color


response and

good design capability.Eileen Chang also took

special

liking of clothing and color.She often altered clothes by herself and turned up wearing elegant dresses.This hobby
can

also be traced in her

works.In most of Eileen Chang’S literary works,vivid and delicacy descriptions of clothing

Can

be easily found.The color words she used
can not

were also very exquisite.One

find other Chinese

literary

works

which had described clothes and color like Eileen Chang’S works except for A Dream砌Red translated

Mansions.This is



feature of Eileen Chang’S

works,too.
Chang was quite different from her contemporaries who

Eileen

translated revolutionary literature and progressive literature of foreign

countries.What has When
she

to be

mentioned is Eileen Chang’S political ideology. of her literary
career

reached the peak

she married

Hu

Lancheng,an

official of

the puppet government in
to

Nanjing without

hesitation.Eileen Chang had been criticized between 1 945 and 1 946.Eileen Chang had
to

be traitor in literary circle

clarify it.She wrote

“I've

never

thought that I need

to

offer

all

explanation.However,since last
as one

year I've been talked by people nOW and then

of those traitors of the

Ⅳ睑Thesis

literary circle,which

even

I myself

can

not figure out.The works I've

written neither touched

on

politics,nor did I get any

subsidies.”(张爱玲

1986:353)

Just

as

Eileen Chang’S written statement said,she really had


no

interest in

politics.This statement appeared in

preface of the stories Chuanqi

which republished in the year 1 946.By that time,none of her works has touched
on

politics.And her marriage with Hu Lancheng was apparently

not because of political purpose.After the People’S Republic of China

was

founded

in

1 949,Eileen

Chang

realized

that

if she

stayed in

Shanghai her creation would be bound.Although she had been invited tO attend the First Conference of Literary Representatives,she lett for Hong Kong without


word.But Eileen Chang did work for the United States
not to

Information Service(USIS)in Hong Kong later.Hoping

be

disturbed by current affairs,she left Hong Kong for America in

1 95 5.

That is the truth.Although Eileen Chang was always keeping away from politics,living in Hong Kong made her who had


weak awareness of

for her weak awareness, politics finally involved in politics.In fact,except there were other reasons for her
to accept the j ob.Apparently,she needed

money.Eileen Chang did publish some articles in school magazine.
However the first

time she wrote

for competition
once

organized by



commercial magazine is for money.She

wrote,“When
or

1 was nine

years old,I have hesitated about choosing music After watching


painting

as

my

career.

film about




poor artist I cried and decided to be
concert



pianist who played piano in

magnificent

hall."(刘川鄂2005:

242)So

the females under Eileen Chang’S pen were almost afraid of

An Ideological Perspective

on

Eileen Chang’s Translation

poverty If


weak awareness is



shortcoming,individualism

can not

be



disadvantage.Eileen Chang had her own merits.Her rigorous working attitude,pursuit for literary achievements were all important for
intellectual.Eileen Chang paid much attention
on an

readers in her literary
an

career.All we have discussed in this subparagraph played role in Eileen Chang’S translation activities.

important

3.1.2 Poetics in Eileen Chang’s Time Poetological concern in translation
translator manipulates his b.the translator
or can

be

of two types:a.the

her author in defiance of a dominant poetics; work
to

manipulates the original

conform

to

the

requirements of the poetics of the target culture through transformation, condensation and
SO

on.So translators


can not

only make translations
use

acceptable to the poetics of

certain time and place,but also

their

translations to influence the evolution of the poetics.

3.1.2.1 Poetics in China in Eileen Chang’S Time Since the beginning of the twentieth

century,progressive intellectuals

sprang to take up their pens to write articles to encourage the oppressed poor people
to

fight

against imperialism and feudalism.So did the
as

translators.Since the May Fourth Movement,intellectuals turned
to

Lu Xun

write articles in vernacular.In this period,most of the literary


works were still about searching for

path of salvaging the country.and turned
to

the

nation.Intellectuals and progressive youths

foreign

countries especially western countries’advanced experience,science and

MAThesis

technology.Thus the third wave of translation in China appeared.The Sino—Japanese

War

and the Second

World War brought

Chinese literature

into anti—fascist direction.Nearly all kinds of literary genres were about anti-Japanese and anti—fascist.Chairman

Mao

emphasized at least two

times that proletarian literature should service for the general public.No
matter how,Chinese literature was always serving for pol itics. After the establishment of the People’S Republic of China in 1 949, literature in China still worked for politics.During the period from 1 949
to

1 966,the trace of wartime literature was still reserved.Heroism,

patriotism and nationalism played dominant roles all the time.The most popular themes were to eulogize the new society,new social systems, new life,or to describe the only

just

passed War time and the social

transformation at that time.Because of the newly emerging political

movements,literature of this period was nearly constituted by series of
critical literature movements.During the process of criticizing different writers and works,literature gradually became the appendage of politics. Finally,it ended with the Culture Revolution.

3.1.2.2 Poetics in the United States in Eileen Chang’S Time As early
as

in the year 1 900,the United States was

ON

the threshold of

modernity.But modernity also brought many problems.It was described

The prospect of modernity both excited and scared Americans.Old truths

and

beliefs

clashed

with unsettling new scientific discoveries and social

practices.People debated the legitimacy of Darwinism,the existence of

32

An Ideological Perspective

on

Eileen Chang’s Translation

God,the dangers of

jazz,and

the federal effort to prohibit

alcoholic

beverages。(Tindall&Shi 2000:792)

As the United States located far away from the European war field,it was the only unhurt associated power in

World War I.What


was more,

the United States caught the chance and became

war profiteer.Although

Roosevelt’S New Deal did not end the Great Depression in the 1 930s,the Second

World War

restored full employment.Then there came another


postwar prosperity.Crisis also was impending.“In the 1 950s there was

widespread discontent meant among the postwar generation,whose voice was
one

of the protest against al the mainstream culture that American

had come tO

represent.”(常耀信2003:374)The

Beat Generation held



rebellious attitude toward conventional values about sex,religion,arts and
even

the American way of life.The 1 960s was filled by the Civil

Rights movement,the second wave of feminism,the Vietnam assassinations of John F.Kennedy and

War,the

Martin

Luther King,etc.American
or

citizens’life was flooded by violence,political

racial.A prevailing

skepticism intellectuals.

appeared

in

American

society,especially

among

the

The varied postwar fictions came into public notice in the years from the end of the war to the end of 1 960s,including the war novel,the southern novel,the Jewish novel,the Beat novel,the Black novel,and satire,etc.After that period,American fiction was noted for its fantasy and surrealism,black tyranny
or

absurd humor.Themes were nearly all about the

of society,the

subjugation

of the

individual,the quest for
tO

self-identity,and the self-indulgence.The novelists of absurd tended

33

MA Thesis

depict that the universe is out The

ofjoint,and
to

it is



tragic place to live in. and

postmodernists

never

tried

control
as

the meaninglessness

disorder through the agency of art

the modernists did.They

just

accepted the contingency and disorder,because they were skeptical. Since Pearl S.Buck was awarded the Pulitzer Prize because of The Good Earth,the western world got


positive impression about China for
an

the first time.At that time,they thought that China was with


ideal country

strong country flavor.In their eyes,emperors in China were also

philosophers and worked in the field sometimes.People there live happily and harmoniously.After 1 960s,American society was full of social

turmoil and unparalleled economic development,SO American people tumed
to Chinese culture to find

comfort.

3.1.2.3 Eileen Chang’S Poetics As with


legendary

life experience and

an

education background

combined with western church school and traditional Chinese private
education,Eileen Chang got many striking literary views. Eileen Chang was born in the year 1 920,when the has perished.As warlords were busy in anarchy.Growing up in security.She
rose to a

personal ities

and original

Late-Qing Dynasty
was in
a state

scuffling,China
no sense

of
or

wild time,she has

of belonging

fame between the year 1 943 and 1 945 which was
as

another period of anarchy

Shanghai has been occupied by the Japanese was only


army.Wang Jingwei(汪精卫)administration

puppet

government,and the Nationalist Party Government Was in Chongqing
which Was far away from Shanghai.In 1 952 Eileen Chang
carrie

back to

An Ideological Perspective

on

Eileen Chang’s Translation

Hong Kong and was in was always keeping



wandering state again.As Li Oufan said,‘‘She

away

from power,being

not

accepted by any

institutionalized

authority.”(李欧梵200 1:283)Apparently,Eileen

Chang did not create literary works for political purpose.Oppositely,she preferred to write

just

for entertainment.Eileen Chang did not have




prejudice

against popular fiction.Once she wrote in


book review,“This

kind of story lacks literature value,but it is

good

entertainment.”(陈子


善2004:25)In another book

review,she said,“It wasn’t

particoloured
about
can

story.It was neither about the hero and the beauty

nor

the

fashionable class conflicts...However,only insipid description

be

natural."(陈子善2004:41)In

the preface for her Chinese translation of

Ernest Hemingway’S The Old Man and the Sea,she referred‘‘There were

some seemingly insipid bitter apperception of

sentences in this

book which were in fact full of
is not hard for
a US to

life."(陈子善2004:1 9 1)It

find that seemingly insipidness and naturalness with
which was what Eileen Chang pursuit for in her works. Eileen Chang came from Zhang Tingzhong was well


deep meaning

declining aristocratic family.Her father,

versed in classical Chinese literature and got


contemporary western literature.He
never

huge collection of books and

interfered in what Eileen Chang was reading.Eileen Chang read

variOtiS kinds of literature forms like poem,fiction,drama,unofficial history,reading notes,etc.Nearly literature works of every dynasty were
on

her reading list.She was infatuated with A Dream in Red Mansions
as

as

early

she was

ten yeas

old.Then every several years,she read it again.

So the traditional Chinese Zhanghui Novel affected Eileen Chang
A Dream in Red

deeply.

Mansions became the

source

of her creation which Was

inexhaustible in supply and always available for use.She liked the works
35

MA Thesis

of the school of mandarin duck and butterfly very much.Zhang Henshui and Lao She’S twonspoeple novels were her favourite.Eileen Chang had read the classic Hai Shang Hua Lie Zhuan by the school of mandarin duck and butterfly many

times.Worldliness

was



specialty of Eileen

Chang’S creative work and her ideal.Eileen Chang wrote herself,“I love
popular

fiction more than I

can

say.I love

those

simple and clear
are

characters

and their vicissitudes of life.People think they


too

flimsiness.No matter how,relievo is


kind of art,isn’t

it?”(张爱玲

995:102)
Meanwhile,Eileen Chang’S good
western education background her

provided her



very good accomplishment for


literary

career

and

translation.As she had art,music and English
teacher was


foreignized mother,she received an education of
early
as

as

only 8 years old.At that time,her piano

White Russian

who spoke English.Later,when she was

tweleve years old,she went to

St.Mary’S

Hall Girls’School where almost
text

all the teachers were

foreigners.The

books were all in English.

Eileen Chang worked very hard in English learning.As her younger brother mentioned in his memoir,

Her English was better than her elder sister really has


Chinese.My aunt

told me

one

time,‘Your

good

talent.Whatever


book in English she picked
or

up she could read,Mthough it was

book of chemistry

physics.’It WaS

the English rather than the content she cared about.That’S why she made
progress in

English.Her English Was ten

fluent,natural,vivid,and sprightly.

Even

though I have another

years to learn I still can’t reach half of her

level.(萧南1995:34)

An Ideological Perspective

Oil

Eileen Chang’s Translation

During Eileen Chang’S three years in Hong Kong University she trained her English very hard.She almost wrote all her articles in English except for only one.Eileen Chang also shared similarities spiritually with her

western contemporaries.She

had admired Oscar

Wilde and referred

to

William Maugham,Aldous Huxleg,Herbert

George

Wells,Eugene

O’Neillin her articles.These writers were all eminent novelists in British and American 1iterature world after W,orld W,ar I.That was the time

when western people were in widespread deep spiritual crisis.Eileen Chang’S novels were always set in


cultural background of



decay and
as

wild time.The desolation in Eileen Chang’S works was the same

that

in those postwar writers.It is

not hard

for Eileen Chang

to create a

bleak

and desolate atmosphere in her translation,too.
Eileen Chang began
to

make



living by writing

for English
to

magazines such

as

Times and XXth

Century when she came back

Shanghai in the year 1 942.This early working experience fostered her
professional accomplishments.Readers place in her mind.Eileen Chang
an

usually took up

an

important

has

mentioned readers’acceptance
Chinese.In

several times in

article titled Some

Suggestionsfor Modern
nouns.

this article she talked about translation of proper

We

often

see

Neiluobi(内罗毕)for Nairobi,Neihuada(内华达)for
are

Nevada.Those translations

already good.Nei
are

as

Neimenggu(内蒙古),

Neihu(内湖),people

will know they

geographic names at the first

sight.However,it is hard for people not to doubt if there are

Wailuobi(外
can

罗毕),Waihuada(外华达).If there

is



kind of sign which

be

exclusive used for names of people and places in place of Nei,we can

37

MA Thesis

translate it into

Nailuobi(耐罗毕)or Nieluobi(涅罗毕).People


will not

blindly guess the word Nei is rather difficult to make made readers


transliteration

or a

liberal translation.It is
to

translation邪appropriate嬲Chinese in order

Can

go

on

with it…,If we don’t translate the geographic
a sense

names and Vessel Names,1 will be overwhelmed by
very striking if there Readers who don’t
are

of failure.It’S

English letters mingled in Chinese characters.

know English must prefer

transliterations.(陈子善

2004:164)

3.1.3 Patronage in Eileen Chang’s Time
As far
as

we know,the first translated work by Eileen Chang was was translated

Xue'ernue(《谑而虐》)which
Some,the American best published in

from臃砌Malice

towards

seller of

1 93 8.This

translated work was
in June 1941.

Xifengiinghua(《西风精华》)magazine
was

Xifengfinghua

the

latest
to

one

of the

series

of

Xifeng monthly
Editorial of

magazine in Shanghai

start publication.The

inaugural

Xifengiinghua

was“Translating

the

cream

of the

westem

books,

introducing reading materials of Europe and America and making further efforts to introduce western

culture.”(qtd.in陈子善2004:1 88)

3.1.3.1 Eileen Chang’s Patronage in China Shortly after the‘outbreak of the Pearl Harbour incident,Japanese troops attacked Hong Kong which cut off Eileen Chang’S period of

schooling.In
to be

May

1 942,Eileen Chang came back to Shanghai.In order

independent she worked for English magazine Times and XXth


Century to make

living.During this period,she wrote many interesting

38

An Ideological Perspective

on

Eileen Chang’s Translation

articles

on

Chinese culture,religion,movie and other
all

subjects.XXth

Century is

English magazine sponsored by




German,Doctor Klans
and got rich
to

Mehnert.He had been

reporter
to

for many years

life

experiences。The aim for him

found XXth Century was

introduce

oriental culture and the status of world affairs.Doctor K1ans Mehnert said
in inaugural Editorial

Choosing Shanghai to found such



magazine was because

Shanghai
and

was

the last cosmopolitan city.He wanted to offer the people who live in Asia


European

American and

channel to communicate with outside world

nourishment for the mind of people secluded from the
to丘n up the vacuum

outer world in order

state.(文fJJ Jl鄂2007:55)

Experienced the high point of her writing marriage,Eileen People’S

career

and

an

abortive

Chang was uncertain about her

career

future in the
to

Republic of China.Although she was invited
to

the First
at

Conference of literary Representatives,she opted

re—enroll

the
no

University of Hong Kong in September 1 952.Because there was

Education Found,Eileen Chang had English was very good,SO she got


to

quit

sch001.Fortunately,her the USIS at last.Eileen
to

job from

Chang kept working for USIS from the year 1 952 fastigium of the Cold

1 955 which was the

War.At

that time,the ideological contest between

western countries led by the United States and the socialist states led by

the Soviet Union and China.The United States Information Service was
an

important department of American govemment
to other

to

implement cultural

infiltration

countries a11 along.

39

MA Thesis

3.1.3.2 Eileen Chang’S Patronage in the United States After the outbreak of the Korean W.ar,the United States took cultural measure and intervened in the literary
arena a

of Hong Kong for

the purpose of criticizing communism and propagandizing American
culture.In this way,the United States attempted to prevent communism

from spreading in Chinese society.The United States

not only set up

publishing house and magazines through Asia Foundation,but also broadcasted American culture and values Kong,Taiwan and Southeast Asia
to

the Chinese mainland,Hong by publishing American

region

literature works and ideology monographs through the sub—publishing house of USIS.During the period of the Cold important basement of the ideology
Its
contest

War,USIS

was

an

between China and America.

maj or task

was to carry out the United States’culture policy which


aimed to make American culture and ideology

dominant role.

In the fall of 1 95 5,Eileen Chang went to the United States where she

didn!t write many books.Her first English fiction,The Rice-sprout Song
was published by Charles Scfibner’S Sons in New York.Although foreign

essayists made good comments,it did

not sell


well.This book was
to

not

republished.Charles Scfibner’S Sons had
Eileen Chang’S new works and
or never

right

amend and select

guaranteed that Eileen Chang’S

books would be published

not.Eileen

Chang had

no

steady income,SO

she asked foundation for help and was accepted by

Macdowell Colony in

New Hampshire.There she finished her second English fiction Pink Tears

which was refused

to be

published by Charles Scribner’S Sons later.After


that Eileen Chang only published

short story named Stale Mates in

The

Reporter in 1 956.Her translated work Foo/s觑the Reed was refused by

An Ideological Perspective

on

Eileen Chang’S Translation

her agent

Marie

Rodell in

America.With

Hu Shi’S help,Eileen Chang

applied mainly

to Huntington
on

Hartford Foundation for accommodation and lived


writing film scripts for

company where Stephen C.Soong

worked in Hong Kong.In the year 1 964,the company corrupted,Eileen

Chang bad

to connect the USIS again to get

some translation tasks which

mainly were rewriting scripts for Voice of America.In 1 967,The Rouge

of the North

was published by Cassell Publishing Corporation after a11.

However,essayists in England gave bad comments.From then on,Eileen

Chang did

not expect to receive a good result

for her English fictions and

changed the main emphasis of her work to translation and writing in

Chinese.With

the financial assistance of Rockefeller Foundation,Eileen
one

Chang began to translate

of her favourite novel

Hai
on

Shang

Hua

Lie

Zhuan.She had spent about 1 8 years of her late years
had worked In
as a

it.Eileen Chang

resident writer in invited
to

Miami
as

University in Oxford in Ohio.


1 969,she was

work

Senior Research

Officer in

University of California in Berkeley.Except for Zhuan,Eileen Chang

Hai

Shang

Hua

Lie

translated some

of her own Chinese fictions,all of

which were translated because of invitation.

3.2


Manifestations
,”
l t●

of Ideological Influence

on

Eileen Chang’S

1ranslation As we all know,translation is not pure code switching.Translation

has important social

functions and very close relations with politics,
SO

history,ideology and
not

on.Just

as

Lefevere claimed,translations were
rewriter did not just write
a or

made in



vacuum,a writer
or

or a

rewrite


in



vacuum:he

she Was only the product of

certain culture in

41

MA Thesis

certain moment.The translation reflects many factors such class,and
race

as

gender,age,

as well

as

the stylistic features of the individual.Further

more,the material conditions in which the text is produced,sold,and read
also play
as a

crucial role.So translators need to balance many factors such

ideology,poetics

and patronage while translating.Ideological influence

exerts on

many aspects of translators’work.For example,it influence the
style of translation products,the

selection of translation texts,the

particular translating strategies,the reception of translation products,the
reception of


certain translator
are

at a certain

period of time.All those


aspects mentioned above

supposed to be at

certain period of time

as

nothing is invariable.As time goes on,things will be different.So does ideology.

3.2.1 Eileen Chang’S Selection of Original Texts
As far
as

we know,Eileen Chang’S first translated work is Xue'ernue
was published in

(《谑而虐》).It

Xifengjinghua(《西风精华》)magazine
American bestseller--

in June 1 94 1.Xue’ernue was translated from

With Malice Toward Some
Halsey,a minor celebrity in

in

1 93 8.It is



maiden work of Margaret

American

literary circle at that time.This

book was

written in diaristic narrative mode.It recorded Halsey’S

experience in Europe with her husband.Eileen Chang reads English and

American literary works

not

because they

are

masterpieces

or

written by

masters.This bestseller described the impression that British,Norway, and Sweden left upon the American people in Eileen


humorous and ironic

tone.

Chang picked

up some typical segments from the

very

beginning

and the end,and blended them together.Eileen Chang’S Xue'ernue is

42

An Ideological

Perspective蚰Eilcen

Chang’s Translation

quite faithful to the original text which shows how she loves this book.In the opening ofXue'ernue Eileen Chang wrote

Madam
take up title

Halsey went to England with her husband,who went to Devon to


post

as

an

exchange professor.She published her diary with the Toward Some。She described the impression that


of珊历Malice

British,Norway,and Sweden left upon the American people in

humorous

and ironic

tone.This book had

been



hit.(王德威1 998:200.)

From this short introduction we

can

find the main

reason

for Eileen

Chang to translate this book is“the cultural researching perspective of Halsey and the integration of western culture and Chinese culture what Eileen Chang has always been
are

concerned.”(王德威1 998:

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