Selected Readings in English Print News Media 英语报刊选读
? ? ? ? North East West South
? politics and government, economy, disasters, crimes and courts, business, strikes, demonstrations and disputes, war and terrorism, environment, famous people and sports, entertainment.
Categories of News
? Hard news , soft news
? hard news : stories of a timely nature about events or conflicts that have just happened or are about to happen ? Soft news: news that entertains or informs, with an emphasis on human interest and novelty and less immediacy than hard news; stories that focus on people, places or issues that affect readers’ lives. These types of stories are called “feature stories.” ? Eg. effectiveness of diets ; the growing number of babies suffering from AIDS
flash (快讯) urgent （急电） brief （简讯） breaking news （突发新闻）
features （特写） personal profile (人物特写) anecdote (趣事；轶事)
If the action or event occurred the same day as or the day before publication of the newspaper, the event is called “breaking news.”
What elements make a story newsworthy? ? ? ? ? ? ? Dog bites man. Man bites dog. Woman bites dog. Important Unusual Interesting
Why Should the News Language be studied? 1.comprehensive English extensive reading, 3.news translation 4.the expanding of the learners’ cultural knowledge of the English-speaking countries. 5.News enables people to become well-informed about the important events happening locally and globally. More significantly, news readers and language learners could also be motivated to get to feel a kind of advanced thinking and analytical style by following those wonderful news articles printed in the English language newspapers and magazines. capabilities: intensive and
2.familiarity of journalistic English,
1.The earliest daily newspaper was started in Rome in 59 BC. 2. In the 700’s the world’s first printed newspaper was published. 3. Europe didn’t have a regularly published newspaper until 1609, when one was started in Germany. 4. The first regularly published newspaper in the English language was printed in Amsterdam in 1620. 5. In 1621, an English newspaper was started in London and was published once a week.
6. The first daily English newspaper was the Daily Courant ( 每 日 新 闻 ). It came out in March 1702.
7. In 1704 The Boston Newsletter (波斯顿新闻通 讯) the first newspaper published in the American colonies.
8. Today, as a group, English language newspapers have the largest circulation in the world.
A Brief Introduction to American Newspapers and Periodicals ? The serious or the quality paper ? Tabloids ? Daily newspaper ? Sunday newspaper ? Weekly newspaper
? USA Today《今日美国报》 ? The Wall Street Journal《华尔 街日报》 ? The Christian Science Monitor 《基督教科学箴言报》 ? International Herald Tribune 《国际先驱论坛报》
The influential newspapers ? The New York Times ? The Washington Post ? The Los Angeles Times
The New York Times
? ? ? ? ? “The Gray Lady Pulitzer Prizes(普利策奖） Time The Times Motto: All the news that’s fit to print. ? Headlines ? Subheadings ? www.nytimes.com
主要期刊简介 (the influential periodicals)
Time 《时代周刊》 1923年创刊，用简明综述的形式 报道新闻，同时提供新闻背景，每周用分类的栏 目组织新闻；报道涉及的范围包括国内和国际事 务、书评、艺术、戏剧、电影、音乐、教育、宗 教以学法律科学金融体育及重大事件。 Newsweek 《新闻周刊》 1933年创刊，基本模仿Time的版式和风格； 以准确、活泼和生动的报道以及追求新闻的客观性而闻 名，尤其注重报道艺术、科学、商业、宗教和体育等方 面。 U.S. News &World Report 《美国新闻与世界报道》 1948年创刊，其政治倾向 比Time和Newsweek要保守一些。以报道国内和国 际新闻以及商业和科学消息为主，并以发布年度大学 和医院排行而闻名。
A Brief Introduction to British Newspapers and Periodicals
主要报纸简介 (the influential newspapers)
《泰晤士报》：1785年在伦敦创刊。该报以遵循严格的报道 和写作标准以及追求准确性而著称，长久以来对英国的公众 舆论具有深刻的影响。因此被誉为“世界第一大报纸”（the First Newspaper in the World）。
《 卫 报 》 ： 原 名 《 曼 彻 斯 特 卫 报 》(The Manchester Guardian), 1821年创刊于曼彻斯特，后迁伦敦，1855年改称 《卫报》。该报以世界性观点、文艺评论和报道以及国外通 讯为特色。
The Daily Telegraph
《每日电讯报》：1855年于伦敦创刊，该报以右 翼和保守倾向的新闻报道吸引读者，曾对政府和 工会进行过调查性报道。
The Financial Times
《金融时报》：1888年于伦敦创刊，是提供商业 和金融消息的世界最主要日报之一；也是目前英 国唯一一家每天全面报道伦敦股票市场动态的报 纸。
主要期刊简介 (the influential periodicals)
The Economist 《经济学家》：1843年创刊，该刊物名称虽然仅涉 及经济，但它也广泛报道一般新闻，尤其是与世界 经济有关的国际政治动态。报道主要侧重世界政治 和商业，同时也设有科技、书评和艺术等固定栏目， 政治观点上倾向于自由派。 The Spectator 《旁观者》：创刊于1828年，是英国全国性周刊 中历史最久、出版从未间断过的杂志之一。以刊 载有关政治、文学和经济的评论性文章而闻名， 其政治倾向较为保守。 The New Statesman 《新政治家》：创刊于1934年，主要发表有关政治、 社会问题、书刊、电影、戏剧等方面的评论。
? The Times is read by people who actually do run the country; ? The Guardian is read by people who think they ought to run the country ； ? The Financial Times is read by people who own the country ； ? The Daily Telegraph is read who think it is.”
China’s Growth Poses Opportunity and Risk
Threat to U. S. economic might is seen
? China’s reform and opening up in late 1978.
? Between 1978 and 2007, China's GDP grew at an average annual rate of 9.75 percent and reached 24.6619 trillion yuan ($3.43 trillion) in 2007. With a total annual trade volume of over $ 2 trillion, China's foreign exchange reserves have reached $1.68 trillion as of March 2008 and continues to grow rapidly. ? China and the US have become economically interdependent and their interests intertwined.
? gains :First, low-priced and good-quality goods and services imported from China have raised the consumer surplus and eased the inflation pressure in the US. ? Second, China's imports from the US have added new momentum to the US economy . For five consecutive years, China has been the fastest growing market of American exports. ? Third, US investments in China have yielded high returns. ? Fourth, China's large-scale purchase of US dollardenominated assets has helped lower US long-term interest rates, thereby providing cheaper capital for supporting US economic growth.
? Trade imbalance：the difference between the monetary
value of exports and imports of output in an economy over a certain period. It is the relationship between a nation's imports and exports.
? Trade surplus ? Unemployment
? Question: How can you understand the headline of this report? (hint:opportunity and risk) ? (for US and China) ? Opportunity: cheap work force and its huge markets (investment in the potential market) ? Risk: fast development, China’s absorption of advanced technology, trade surplus ,American’s job losses
? ascension , setback, currency,vulnerable: adj. easily hurt “It’ not necessarily as vulnerable as Japan was.”一定不 会 a. economic bubble :it occurs when speculation (投机买 卖)in a commodity causes the price to increase, thus producing more speculation. The price of the goods then reaches absurd levels and the bubble is usually followed by a sudden drop in prices, known as a crash. (经济泡 沫)(foam economy) b. economy over expansion ,overheating c. abundant bankfailure
? GUANGZHOU, China :When Japan, at the zenith of its economic power, built a huge airport in Osaka in the late 1980's, the project set off a seven-year trade battle with the United States over the nearly complete exclusion of non-Japanese companies . Japan’s establishment of an airport (the epitome of Japan’s economy in 1980s)
? 电头:place, time, the news agency Eg.ROME, Nov.8. – AP：Associated Press （美国）美联社The headquarter is in New York city, the largest one in the world. – UPI: United Press International （美国）合众 国际社 – Reuters: Reuter’s News Agency (英国)路透社 – PA：Press Association(英国) 报纸联合社
? China, heir to Japan as the rising star of Asia, is now completing its own immense airport in Guangzhou, the sprawling commercial center of affluent southeastern China. But the Chinese are going about it differently.
American companies designed the terminal, its airconditioning system and the flight information system. A German company engineered the vaulting roof, a Danish company produced the boarding gates and a Dutch company, the check-in counters. Chinese women in broadbrimmed straw hats wield shovels and brooms across from a modern air-traffic-control tower designed by a company from Singapore. (the reporter offers the comparison of the construction of Guangzhou Airport with that of Japan’s Osaka Airport. )
Para 2,3: china’s style of establishing Guangzhou
Airport (the epitome of China’s economy
? Guang Zhou International Airport
? 4 The welcome that China is offering to multinational companies and foreign investment has left many Western business executives, so critical of a closed Japan more than a decade ago, enthusiastically embracing China, its cheap work force and its huge markets.
? Para 4 China’s attractive advantages ? China is offering welcome to multinational companies and foreign investment. ? The welcome has left many Western business executives enthusiastically embracing China because its cheap work force and its huge markets. ? Many Western business executives were critical of a closed Japan a decade or so ago.
? But that same openness ---combined with China's vast population of 1.3 billion and military muscle --makes it an even greater long-term economic challenge to the United States than Japan seemed to be in the 1980's, according to a growing number of executives, economists and officials. Challenge in population and military (China>Japan) Muscle
While China's economy is still one-third the size of Japan's, the potential size of its market has made it very hard for companies to say no when Beijing officials demand that they build factories, reveal the latest technology or adopt Chinese technical standards. ? Para 6 China: potential market
? Para7 Japan has effectively run out of lowwage workers for its industries, and quickly brought much of its economy up to and in some cases beyond Western technological standards. China still has vast reserves of cheap labor in inland areas and many backward industries that Work force: China>Japan can grow swiftly asworkers for its industries…. they copy Western and Run out of low-wage Japanese=have not low-wage workers for its industries methods. any more…. =have the workers for its industries ? Work force: China>Japan who can be well paid ? Run out of low-wage workers for its industries…. ? =have not low-wage workers for its industries any more…. ? =have the workers for its industries who can be well paid
? "China could do what Japan did, as a very fast follower, but China could do it bigger and better and for a longer period of time," said Steven Weber, an Asia scholar at the University of California at Berkeley. "It's not necessarily as vulnerable as Japan was." ? Para 8 not vulnerable (China>Japan)
? the enormous influences that Chinese economy exerts on the foreign countries’ economy mainly U.S. ? Question 1: why does China attract so many investments? ? Question 2: what does the author worry about? ? Question 3: what’s the obvious advantage in the comparison between China and Japan?
? But while Japan's danger to other economies over the last decade has taken the numbing forms of economic stagnation and political lassitude, China poses the risk of fast, sharp shocks. ? Para 9 danger posed (China>Japan)
? Its transition from a planned economy to a form of capitalism seems to make it especially susceptible to economic booms and busts, and Chinese officials have begun worrying that an unsustainable economic bubble is developing. At the same time, China's one-party system may struggle to adapt to the social tensions brought to the surface by rapid economic development . Para.10 Chinese officials worrying economic bubble
? Optimists see it surmounting the obstacles. "Once China passes the high growth, it will have the bursting of the bubble," said Eisuke Sakakibara, Japan's former vice minister of finance for international affairs, "but that will happen in 20 years. China is Japan of the 1960's.“ ? Para.11, 12 China’s economic bubble will burst late. ? P10-P12 the potential danger of Chinese Economy
Japan in the 1960’s
? ? ? ? High Growth of 1955-62 Large investment in heavy industry Imports of energy and raw materials Government’s economic goals:
– achieve economic self-sufficiency – achieve full employment – improve export competitiveness – keep domestic demand high
? High Growth of 1963-73 ? Government’s plan to “double the national income in ten years” ? scheduled 9% annual growth rate ? large-scale infrastructure construction
– Shinkansen (bullet train) – Olympic Games – port, road, and rails – human infrastructure
? labor-intensive in decline
– agricultural subsidies – textile bankruptcies and “excess capacity” – coal industry in serious decline
? capital-intensive on the rise
– large firms had 10- and 20-fold growth
? electronics and automobile
? Aggressive export strategy
– businesses compete with foreign counterparts under government protection
? domestic market sealed off from competition ? Strict limitations on government expenditures ? 1965 Japanese exports exceeded imports for the first time in two decades
? government responded to some sectors’ decline with reorganization and subsidization ? technological improvement and facility modernization under government protection
– Ministry of International Trade and Industry
? constant and critical role in developing the computer industry
13Like the Japanese challenge of a generation ago, China's strength is drawing growing attention in American politics. Senator John Edwards of North Carolina has become the main challenger to Senator John Kerry of Massachusetts for the Democratic presidential nomination by emphasizing jobs lost to trade, especially trade with China; Mr. Kerry says he and Mr. Edwards essentially agree on trade questions.
14The Bush administration over the last year has tried to assuage worries about job losses by talking tough with the Chinese ---in particular, demanding that China let the exchange value of its currency float upward to raise the price of its exports. But it has also continued to assert its faith in a policy of free trade.
? Chinese economy exerts on American politics. (Par.13-par.16) ? Para 13, 14 China’s economic growth influences American politics.
Q:Why do the Democratic presidential candidates blame the U.S unemployment on China? . Are they playing politics? Q: What’s the Bush administration’ s attitude toward the trade with China?
? Johnny Reid "John" Edwards (born June 10, 1953) is a former United States Senator from North Carolina. Edwards was one of the major contenders for the Democratic nomination in the 2004 U.S. presidential election
? John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts. In 2004, he made an unsuccessful bid for the United States presidency as the Democratic Party's nominee.
? On November 3, 2004, Kerry conceded the Presidential race to Bush. Kerry won 59.03 million votes or about 48 percent of the popular vote; Bush won 62.04 million votes, or about 51 percent of the popular vote. Kerry carried states with a total of 252 electoral votes, but one Kerry elector voted for Kerry's running mate, Edwards, so in the final tally Kerry had 251 electoral votes to Bush's 286.
American Job Losses
? ? ? ? ? China’s cheap labor---Cheap products---Cheap exports----More foreign customers---American commodities keeping relative high cost----? No need of many labors---? More fired working people---? Job losses increase .
? China's strengths are indeed impressive. Its wage advantage is much greater than Japan's was a decade or two ago. China has the diplomatic muscle to resist trade and currency concessions that might undermine its competitive edge. And its opening to foreign investment brings China both the latest technology and the corporate connections overseas that help it fight restrictions on its exports. ? Para.15 the three aspects of China’s strength.
? For all these reasons, China's trade surplus with the United States has soared, quintupling in the last decade to $124 billion in 2003. By comparison, Japan's surplus did not quite triple in the decade when its economy conjured the most anxiety among Americans. And in the last decade, it has leveled off, at $66 billion last year. P a r a 1 6 C h i n a ’ s t r a d e surplus to America
? Why has China’s strength in economic development affected the politics in the U.S? para15-16
Section Four P17-24
? the report cites an example to reaffirm China’s biggest advantage in economic development. the examples of cheap work force ( Sunxin and Du Anan) ? Question 1: where does the cheap workers mainly come from? ? Question 2: how do these workers think of their jobs?
? the news reporter spreads warning messages given to the China officials about their economic situation.
? Q 1: What will threaten China’s economic development? ? Q 2: what is predicted in terms of China’s economic future?
? ? ? ? ? Para 25 China’s vulnerability to acute setbacks. Bank failure: steady and bad accounts(呆账.坏帐) inflationary spiral Overcapacity Excessive investment
25The biggest question lingering over China is how vulnerable it remains to acute setbacks --a banking failure, an inflationary spiral, even a temporary economic bust. Citing overcapacity and excessive investment in some sectors of the economy, the Chinese central bank warned recently that "we really cannot be optimistic about the situation of inflation." A crack in the economy could shake governments across East Asia that have tied their economies to China's, warns Ajay Kapur, a strategist in Hong Kong with Salomon Smith Barney. 26For a parable about economies that seem as if they could prosper indefinitely, Chinese officials need look no farther than to Osaka and its huge airport. The artificial island on which it was built a few years ago is slowly sinking in the Pacific.
? Para 26 China’s economic future ? the construction of Osaka airport is a filling sea project, (reclamation engineering)it is slowly sinking into the sea; Chinese economy could not be prosperous without end and will fell into depression one day in the future.
a.the comparison of the construction of Guangzhou airport with that of Japan’s Osaka airport. b.the enormous influences that Chinese economy exerts on the foreign countries’ economy mainly U.S. (economic influence)
c. the influences that Chinese economy exerts on
American politics. (political influence) d.citing an example to reaffirm China’s biggest advantage in economic development . e.warning messages given to the China officials about their economic situation.
1. How would you compare the construction of Guangzhou Airport with that of Japan’s Osaka Airport?
Economic background Time of construction
Foreign companies’ participation in the project
Trade relationship with U.S
2. Compared with Japan, why can China absorb foreign investment, get the advanced technology or adapt Chinese technological standards?
Economic advantages: its cheap work force and its huge markets the potential size of it s market 3. What is China’s biggest advantage in the economic competition? its immense and low-paid work force.
Is China’s economy vulnerable? No. China’s economy is not as vulnerable as Japan’s was because China still has vast reserves of cheap labor and many backward industries that can grow swiftly.
5.Why has China’s strength in economic development affected the politics in the U.S? Why do the Democratic presidential candidates blame the U.S unemployment on China? Are they playing politics? a. the Chinese trade surplus with the United Stats has soared. b. c. the low exchange value of its currency, the low price of its exports, and its wage advantage Yes, they are, especially when the presidential campaign is under way.
? 6. What warning message has been given to the China officials about their economic situation? ? economies could not prosper indefinitely ? be prepared for setbacks
? Premier Wen Jiabao vowed to keep inflation within a range of 4 percent or lower this year, when he delivered the government's annual work report to the nation's top legislative body, the National People's Congress, on March 5. ? Li said the ratio of China's trade surplus to GDP will decline to about 2 percent this year, and to 1.5 percent in 2012. In 2010, the ratio was slightly higher than 3 percent, down from the 5.8 percent in 2009.(www.chinadaily.com.cn)