ְҵԺУѧְҵо_ͼ

ʱ:2017-06-27

JIAOYAN

LILUN

ְҵԺУѧְҵо
־Ⱥ
ժ

ׯϼ

Ҫ ְҵ Ŀ Ǵ ѧ ϰ ۺ ְҵ չ ְҵ ְҵ ѧ

ȴdz ڹʺ Ŀ ְҵ ְҵ ͬ в (COMET ְҵԺУ ά ר ҵ ѧ ְҵ ģ large-scale-diagnostic о Ϊְҵ ʵ֤ ͽ ѧ ĸṩ ֧ ؼ ְҵ ģ ά ߼ : ־Ⱥ 1966- ӱʯ ׯ ʦ ѧ ְҵ ʿ Ϊְҵ ѧ ְҵ ׯϼ 1972- Ů ʦ ѧ ְҵ о ʿ о Ϊ ְҵ ѧ Ŀ ʦ ѧ 985 ֿ֧ ְҵ չ ְҵ ϵ о

9852001xsjg011 ־Ⱥ
ͼ G712 ױʶ A ± 10017518 2013 03000404

һ ְҵоǹְҵо͸ʵ еһص Ȼҹ۶ཨ ص۸֪;ܽ ȱʵ ۻʵ֤ ҹְҵ ں̶ܴܵӰ ְ ҵ ֤ ϵ Ӣ NVQs DACUM γ̿ Ϊ ͬ ʱ кְܶҵ˵¹龳ѧ ϰۺͽϵְҵж ְҵĸ ְҵIJͬʶ ˲ְͬҵγģʽ ѧ۷ ְҵ˲ͬĹʩ ʶ ֻ ʵ֤оͻ , ְҵоΪְ ҵʵṩֱӵָ ڴ չְҵ Ҫ Ϊֹ ҹְҵҪѧУ Ľѧػ õģͺָ ϵнǿѧУ ޷˽ У֮ıȽϡ о ģͺͲ޷ӳְҵ֪ չ ҲûнԲչ׶ζ ӦϵĽģ [1]

˻ϽвͬԺУ ĽѧȽ Ϊѧĸƶṩ COMET ģͺͲģ [2]ۻƵְҵ ˼ [3] ж ѧ [4] չ [5] ְ ҵ ߼ [6] ֪ ʶ [7] ְ ҵ Щڹְҵоʵ õ㷺ͬ COMET ģ Ҳ׵õϿ Ϊ˿ѧĶ ְҵͿ ְҵѧ Ϻ ܹΪʦĽѧ ṩֱӵ֧ нϺõĿְҵͿĻ ص

2008 ʦѧͱ̿Ժ ְ ҵ Ŀ COMET
ֱڱ Ĵ 㶫ͽְͨ ҵѧУĵάרҵ 4 ι ģȵ һ̶˽ ͬͲְͬҵԺУѧְҵķ չˮƽ ҲΪְҵγ̺ͽѧĸṩм ֵIJο Ľ 2012 άרҵѧ һҪ COMET ְҵģ COMET ְҵĻһά ģ ά ά ṹάȺְҵжά ͼ 1 һ ְҵ

COMET Ŀ һ Դ , ʿ
ǵȹĹְҵȽоĿ ں ൱ְҵ PISA COMET ôģ large-scale diagnostic ѧ ְ ҵ ְҵŵְҵͬзչ

1 ְҵˮƽĵһ Ҫ ѧ߱Ժ͸ԵĻ֪ʶ Щ
֪ʶרҵж

4

ְ̳ /2013.3

JIAOYAN

LILUN



Ҫά ˮƽ δ֪
ר ά ѧϰΧ

ƺ۷ [11] ְҵ ˮ ƽ ָ Ϊ˿ĿԱߵ COMET 8 ָ ԶԱߵнͺ 8 ָ ֱ /չ ʾ ʹ ֵ ԣ ҵ̺͹̵ [8] ƪ IJ һ μ 2012 άרҵְҵ

ȡϢ ƻ

ʵʩ

жά Ĺ

ͼ1

COMET ְҵģ [2]

2 иλĻ ֪ʶͼ ﻹҪѧ⸴ӵĹ
ϵ 龳Բ

724 ѧ 76 ʦ ͨϵͳ 6 Ĵʡ 3 ߵְҵѧԺ Լ 7 ʦѧ
Ժ ְѧԺıԾΪ꼶ѧ ʦѧԺѧ Ϊ ѧ Ԥ ʦȲͬ͵ĵİ༶ רҵѧϰʱ пɱ ĵʽ ۺϲĿ ѧ ʾ Ǿɵ¹÷ѧ ʹ ۺϲĿҹʵ˼ ɾ ˲ҹ޷شûȷ Ŀ ߶ģͺָ ĸ߽ܶ ϸߵ߼Ŷ ģͺֱ׼ βһϵй ȷ ѵ Ϊ ÿ λṩԸò ռ ԲĿֵܳĽ 2012 6 ½ ʱѧ ҵʵϰ ͳһʱʵϰҵص ѧУμӲ COMET Ŀڵ¹ IJȫһ ɺ 25 ʦ ֣ ÿһݽʦֱ Ϊ˱֤߼Ŷ Ƕ 25 λֽʦ ѵ ѵ 6 ϰĿ߼Ŷ Finnjust ֱΪ 0.79 0.84 0.78 0.84 0.83 0.5 Ϊ 0.7 Ϊ һ ȫѧְҵˮƽֲͼ

3 ҵ̺͹
龳ϵ ɹҪǾ ˿͵͹̵ȶ෽Ҫ ѧ߱ ʶ͹֪ʶ

4 廯 ѧŵ
ϵͳʶ ĸҪ ҪǸӵҵỷԼڹ ̺ͽIJͬҪ PISA ڿѧ Ķ ѧ ڵˮƽ ˮ ƽѧڷȺ壬 û㹻ְҵ ޷ְҵ׼ɸλ [8] ѧ ϰ Χ ְҵɳ߼ ְҵչ̷ Ϊѧ ߼ѧ ߺר ׶ [9] Ͷ F.Rauner ȷ չ׶Ե֪ʶ̬ ݴ ְҵѧϰ ݷΪĸΧ Χһ ְҵŽ ѧϰְҵ רҵ ְ ҵ ְ ҵ ѡ ְҵɲְҵͬ Χ ְҵԽ ѧԹϵͳ ͸豸Եʶ ְ ҵ ֪ ʶ ˼ ֮ĹϵԼͶ֯Ĺϵ ȡ鲢ʼְҵθ Χ ְҵԽ ѧ븴ӹ ӦĹ֪ʶ ɷdz ٽĽһչ ɳ ΪרҵԱγɽϸߵְҵθ Χ ֪ʶϵͳרҵ ѧɽ ԤĹ ѧ֪ʶ빤ʵ ϵ չ֯оѧϰ [10] ж жѧϰ ж̷Ϊ ׶ ȷ ƶƻ ʵʩ

2 ʾ 9.9% ѧˮƽ 44.6% ˮ ƽ 38.8% ˮƽ 6.6% ﵽˮƽ
ְͬҵԺУѧְҵ 罻ͨϵͳԺУһѧڹ 32% 1.2%
ְ̳ /2013.3

5

JIAOYAN

LILUN

50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 9.90%

44.60% 38.80%
K7

K8 22.5 K1 11.25 K6 KG KP KF K2

6.60%
K5 K3 K4





ͼ2

ѧˮƽֲ

ͼ6

ۺְԺУѧ (GPW=28; V=0.327)
22.5 K7 11.25 KG K6 KP KF K2 K8 K1

ˮƽ 15.8% ˮƽ ڹ ʦ ѧ Ժ ѧ 53.3% ѧ ˮƽ 13.5% ѧﵽˮƽ ͼ 3

0% 1.2% 5.5% 13.5% 32.0% 25.0%
ҵְԺУ ۺְԺУ ʦѧԺ

53.3% 50.9% 64.1%

K5 K4

K3

28.1% 15.8% 5.5% 5.1% 20% 40%

ͼ 7 ʦѧԺѧ (GPW=33, V=0,303) Կ ѧ K1 ֱԺչʾ K2 ֽϺ ⷴӳҹ ǰְҵӸλѵĽ K5 ҵ ̺͹̵ K3 ʹüֵ K4 ֮ K8 K6 K7 ͳ ̬ Ҳ ȫ ʽս ۺԺУͼʦѧԺ ѧ һ V Ϊ 0.327

60%

80%

ͼ3

ѧУѧˮƽֲ

ܵ ݼʦѧԺƽ(33) ƽ(29߷ֶαҲѧУ ; ۺ ְԺУƽΪ 28 , ƽֻƽ ͬѧУѧ÷ֲַͼ 4 ʾ:
ҵְԺУ n=322 MW=26 ۺְԺУ n=128 MW=28 ʦѧԺ n=274 MW=33 ԺУ n=724 MW=29

0.303 ҵ Ժ У һ (V = 0.397) ԭijЩԺУ
10% 25% MW 75% 90%

ʩͽʦɵ β 76 λʦμ ȡ ĿеһμӲ 1/3 ı ʦﵽˮƽ 40% ʦﵽ ˹ˮƽ 23% ʦڹ

0

10.0

20.0

30.0

40.0

50.0

60.0

ͼ 4 ѧУѧٷֱȷֲͼ ԺУμѧͼ ʾ
K8 22.5 K7 11.25 KG K6 KP K5 K4 K3 KF K2 K1

ˮƽ׶ ʦͼ 8 ʾ ʦ K1ֱԺչʾ K2 K3ʹ üֵ K5ҵ̺͹̵ ÷ֽϸߣ K6ܶ K7 ϵĵ÷ֽ ѧ ӳ ˽ʦṹѧγֱӵӰ ʦѧԺѧ ְҵ У ѧ ϰ ѧ ʱ Ȥ ͬ ԺУѧ ߴ 79.5% ѧ Ըѧ ר ҵ ( ͼ 9) ӳ ЩѧУڿγ̺ͽѧĸ﷽ȡõij ʵ ȡ ͻ Щ ѧ УĿǰѳΪҹְҵĸʵҪ 쵼 Դ һ ̺ͽѧԵ㹤геҪ ѧְ

ͼ5

ҵְԺУѧ (GPW=26; V=0.397)
ְ̳ /2013.3

6

JIAOYAN

LILUN



ҵ Щ ѧ У ҵ ʵ ϰ й ʵ ϰ 81.7% ͬ ѧ Ϊ Ա Χ ͵ԺУ
ȷ ȷ ̫ȷ ȫȷ

K8 22.5 K7 11.25 KG K6 K1 KF K2

26.00% 14.70% 21.50% 46.30% 45.50% 36.80% 53.50%

KP K5 K4 K3

17.50% 3.00% 2.10% 23.60% 9.40% 20%

ͼ9

ҽԸѧרҵ Ļش

0%

40%

60%

ʦѧԺ ۺ ְ Ժ У ҵ ְ Ժ У

˽ϴ ҪԭȱȾ߱ ʵְҵѧ֪ʶ ֶרҵҪְҵʵ ˽ Ľʦ лһЩҪ ѧ УΪѧУԳɼѧӦ ѵ пܽԵŶ ܶѧУְҵҲϣרҵ ʦչ COMET ԭ ͵طԼְҵԺУ֯˴ʦ ѵĿ οѧЩѵĿЧ ְʦѵģʽ߸Ľṩʵ֤ ϣһеĹ Ѿƻ ʦְҵв ɴ̽Ѱʦѧ ְҵչ֮Ĺϵ ǿ ô һֽ̽ʦζѧչӰ ôһ̽ԭ ЩӰѧְҵķչ
ο : [1] ׯϼ , ־Ⱥ . ְҵԺ У ѧ ְ ҵ ʵ ֤ [M]. : 廪ѧ , 2012. [2]Rauner, F. u.a.. Messen beruflicher Kompetenzen. Mnster: LIT, 2009. [3]Rauner, F. Gestaltung von Arbeit und Technik. In: Arnold, R.; Lipsmeier, A. (Hrsg.). Handbuch der Berufsbildung. Opladen: Leske + Budrich, 1995: 52-72. [4]Bader, R.. Berufliche Handlungskompetenz. In: Die berufsbildende Schule 1989(41): 73-77. [5]Havighurst R.J.. Developmental task and Education. New York: Longmans & Green, 1972. [6]Dreyfus H.L.; Dreyfus S.E.. Mind over machine: the power of human intuition and expertise in the era of the computer. Oxford: Blackwell, 1986. [7]Boreham, N. C.; Samurcay, R.; Fischer, M. (Hrsg.). Work Process Knowledge. London/New York: Routledge, 2002 [8] , ־ Ⱥ , . ְ ҵ ְ ҵ [M]. : 廪ѧ 2010. [9]Benner, P.. Stufen zur Pflegekompetenz C From Novice to Expert. 2 Nachdruck. Huber, Bern u. a. O.,1997. [10]Rauner, F. Entwicklungslogisch strukturierte berufliche Curricula: Vom Neuling zur reflektierten Meisterschaft. ZBW. 1999 (3): 424-446. [11]Schelten, A. Grundlagen der Arbeitsp?dagogik. Stutgart: Franz Steiner, 1995. α༭ º ְ̳ /2013.3

ͼ8

ʦ

෴ ְҵչˮƽѧУദھ ò ЩѧУ豸ʦ뷢 нϴ γ̺ͽѧĸҲ ӽͨѧУѧչɢȽ ״Եõ֤ʵ ΪһѧУ йϵ ѧУ ҲдھǷʡҸ ѧУ ԺУѧͼԿ ܱ ѧԲ Щ ϱֵIJ Ҳ˵ γ ĸijɹҪڹ ǰ ְ ҵ ǿ ְ ҵ ĸĸ׷Ҳһµ һЩرֵע ڶԱְҵͬз 2/3 ѧʾ Ը±רҵ ʦѧԺѧһ 79.5% ѧУнһѧ ʾ ѧϰһרҵ ˵ ѧ϶Աְҵͬв һ˵ ά޼λ һ Ҳӳ˵ǰձڵĸ̬ ֵӺͷ˼ һЩȥûʶ Ļͳ ͬԺУѧĸ Ů ר ҵ ѧ ϰ ѧ ĸŮѧϰİԸԺ У пĻʵصһַӳ ƪ зֵⲻ ׸ ʵ֤ COMET ְҵѧ ְҵչͶְҵѧĸĿļ طһЧĹ չ βְ̽˻ ҵģӲְҵĺ ܴ ȻΪֹ Ŀ ġ һЩѧУԶĿ

7


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