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乔治斯坦纳阐释学视角下《聊斋志异》英译本译者主体性研究

时间:2012-08-24


辽宁师范大学 硕士学位论文 乔治斯坦纳阐释学视角下《聊斋志异》英译本译者主体性研究 姓名:崔瑶 申请学位级别:硕士 专业:英语语言文学 指导教师:董广才 20080501

摘要

本文以乔治斯超纳阐释学翻译理论为理论基础,以《聊斋志异》三个英译本为 研究对象,分柝凝坦纳提出的翻译活动四步骤中不同译者发挥主体性造成的翻译 差异,用以说明译者主体性贯穿翻译活动的始终,并对翻译的效果产生重要影响。 探求意义理解和解释的谫方哲学.阐释学与翻译相结合开创了翻译研究的新局 面,并由此产生了多个新的翻译研究视角。 乔治斯坦纳在阐释学基础上提出的

翻译四步骤即“信任’’“侵入~‘吸收"“补偿"无一不是在强调译者主体性的发
挥。本文所选择的案例分析译本是以深刻的主题和独特的艺术手法而备受推崇,

中国拥有最多翻译版本的小说——靖代蒲松龄《聊斋志异》的英译本。
文字主要介绍翟理斯,杨宪益夫妇以及Denis C。和VictorH。M瘟这三个主要 英译本,并运用颠坦纳翻译四步骤理论分析由于译者不同文化背景,个人经历以 及其他主体意识的影响导致的不同翻译效果,证实在翻译活动中译者的主体性作 用得以充分展现,并为《聊斋志异》英译本的研究提供了一些新的参考。 关键词:阐释学;译者主体性;翻译四步骤理论

Abstract

This thesis analyzes the

translation

differences caused

by different translators’

subjectivity

by taking George Steiner's hermeneutic motion黼the theoretical basis
as

and three English versions of Liaozhaizhiyi prove that the

the study

cases.The

writer wants to of translation

translator’S subjectivity

penetrates the whole effect.

process

activity and greatly influences the

translation

The

combination

of

Hermeneutics

which

is

the


westem

philosophy

of

understanding and interpretation studies

and

translation creates

new domain of translation

and

brings is

many

new perspectives of translation studies。The

translator's

subjectivity

emphasized

in the whole four steps according

to

Steiner:trust,
are

aggression,incorporation

and

compensation.The

study

cases

in this thesis

three

English versions of Pu Songling’S Liaozhaizhiyi which gets profound

great

reputation by its

subjects

and unique writing skills and

even

as



novel it has the most

translated

versions in China。

In this thesis,the writer mainly introduces the three Giles,Yang fourfold

major

English versions by and
USeS

Xianyi

and Gladys Yang,Denis C and Victor to

H.Mair

Steiner’S
by

translation‘theory

analyze

different

translation

effects

cafised

translators’different culture backgrounds,personal experiences and other

subjective

matters.Based

On

those researches,the thesis proves that translator's

subjectivity

displays fully in the translation activity

and

also the research of this thesis may offer

some new references for studying

En玺ish versions ofLiaozhaizhiyi.

Keywords:hermeneutics,translator’S subjectivity,translation fourfold theory

A Study

on

Translator’s

Subjectivity in En#ish Versions of Liaozhaiz,蘸iyi under the Perspective
George Steiner’S Hermeneutic Motion

of

学位论文独创性声明

本人承诺:所照交的学位论文是本人在导师指导下所取得的研究成果。论文 中除特别加以标注鄹致谢的地方外,不包含他人和其他机构已经撰写或发表过的 研究成粟,箕缝阕志的研究成果对本人麴寓示和掰提供的帮助,均己在论文孛徽 了明确的声明并表示谢意。

学位论文作者签名:

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本学位论文作者完全了解辽宁师范大学有关保留、搜用学位论文的规定,及 学校有权保留并向圈家有关部门或机构送交复印件或磁盘,允许论文被查阅和借 阕。本文授权辽宁师范大学,可以将学位论文的全部或部分内容编入有关数据库 并进行检索,可以采用影窜、缩印或扫箍等复制手段保存、汇编学位论文。保密 的学位论文在解密后使用本授权书。

学位论文作者签名:咯殇




麓:磁二竞婶。
指导教师签名:

杉纫

Acknowledgements

First and foremost 1 would like thank my supervisor,Prof.Dong Guangcai.He
spares of the
nO

effects in helping me with the composition of this thesis,from the selection

subject,searching

for references

to the

improvement of the manuscript.Without

his enlightening and patient instruction,it would have been
render


impossible

for黼e

tO

manageable thesis。In the mean time,I am obliged to Professors Weng Dexiu,

Cheng Xiaoguang,Wang
of insights in the writing. ,And I
aln

Bing,h蜡Hui,etc.Their lectures

endowed me with



lot

much obliged to my family members for their subsidization and
tO all

encouragement and

my friends for their advice and

h咖.

A Study

Oil

Translator's

Subjectivity

in English Versions ofLiaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of George Steiner’S Hermeneutic Motion


Chapter I

Introduction

1.1 The Background of The Present Study

The traditional translation theories focused

on

the analysis of the criteria,properties, the study of the translator who

techniques and methods of translation while
had been compared to the deferential role

ignored
human

of

servants.With the“culture turn"

in 1960s,the translator’S
schools in different

status is promoted to a great extent.Scholars of different
on

translation

studies have east new light
are

the

status

of the
the

translator from translator like

viewpoints.There

many

theories

discussing theory and

manipulation theory,feminist
etc.

theory,post—colonial

deconstruction theory

Hermeneutics provides

translation enough theoretical translator.The

resources

and supporting,and

highlights
by

the status of the

philosophical hermeneutics is established

Hans—Georg

Gadamer,according to the

whom

understanding is

the

interaction the past,

between the

subject and

object

in the

communication

of the present

and

and it is historical and the historicity of understanding leads tO the partiality. English famous with

translator—George
studies

Steiner combines philosophical Hermeneutics


translation

and

establishes

systematic

hermeneutic

translation

theory-Hermeneutic Motion.He divides the translation process into four concrete
steps which is regarded

as

Steiner’S

most

shining

glory:trust,aggression,

appropriation

and

compensation.And in the fourfold motion according to Steiner the

invoNemem of the translator’S


subjectivity
owing

penetrates the whole

translation process. and artistic

P毽Songling's Liaozhaizhiyi achievements is regarded
as one

to

its

significant

thematic

of

the most

important

classics in Chinese literary

history.It gets great reputation since it is written in the 17m century all around the
world

and has more

than 50 English versions and three

of

them

are

major

ones-

Strange stories from A Chinese Studio by Giles,Selected Tales from LiaoZhai by Yang



A Study On Translator's Subjectivity in En孚ish Versions of Liaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of George Steiner’S Hermeneutic Motion

Xianyi and his wife Gladys Yang and Strange Tales

from



Make?do

Studio by Denis

C and Victor H.Mair.Because of their different cultural and other

and

personal backgrounds

subjective matters,their

translations

are

very diverse.

Interested in Steiner’S hermeneutic translation theory and translator’S the author of this thesis ventures to revalue the observe its exertion in the
case

subjectivity,

subjectivity

of the

translator and

of English versions of Pu SongLing’S Liaozhaizhiyi

from the perspective of Steiner's hermeneutic motion.

1.2 The Significance of

The Present Study

The translator’S status has visible from

been elevated since the“culture turn”and become emergence of new approaches
to

invisibility.Recently,wi氇the
translator’S

translation studies,the

subjectivity is

gradually brought into light and铲i纛
begins to be studied in


increasing aUenfion among

translation theorists.Translation

dynamic,functional,and communicative
translator has been paid more attention

perspective and thus the translator’S

subjectivity of

the

to.The

subjfectivity and

his or her

cultural and subjects
for

aesthetic tendencies have

become necessary

and important research

translation researchers: masterpiece After
Babel is regarded as


Steiner's

monumental work in

translation

studies.The work applies knowledge in music

history,language,fiterature,linguistics,arts,
translation.This
work has hit the

and

even

sociology and anthropology into

whole academic circle since its publication and invites various responses.In chapter five,Steiner proposes that“the

hermeneutic motion,the act of elicitation and

appropriative transfer of meaning,is
appropriation

fourfold"(2001,312).They

are trust,aggression,

and compensation.
many researchers

There

ale

and people

who

are

interested

in

the

work
US

Liaozhaizhiyi and they really study the work from many perspectives which exhibit

diverse researching aspects of it.Of course,some people study the translator’S

subjectivity

in its

translated

versions under Steiner’S hermeneutic motion.But little



A Study

on

Translator's Subjectivity in English Versions of Liaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of George Steiner’S Hermeneutic Motion
on

research was done

the comparative study among these three

major

versions up to

now.This thesis aims at finding typical examples among three
to

major

English versions

prove that

Steiner’S

hermeneutic motion

can

be

used as

the theoretic basis

through which translators’subjectivity

will be open out fully.

1.3 The Layout of The Thesis

The whole paper is

divided into five parts.Chapter

one

is introduction which shows

the background and significance of this paper.And chapter five is

conclusion which


summarizes what

are

discussed above.In it the writer points out that

translator’S

subjectivity plays
contributes


all

important role in translation
SUCCESS

process.The translator's subj’ectivity
i藏the target text,which deserves
our

lot to the achievements and

attention and will continue to

be

the

subject

of translation research。

Consequently,the main body of this thesis the writer gives
on a

consists

of

three chapters.In
and

chapter tWO, introduction that,the

historical review of the

translator’S subjectivity

an

the

connotation

and development of the translator’S

subjectivity.After

writer presents the theoretical

bases,namely

the hermeneutics and George Steiner’S

hermeneutic translation theory.
Chapter Pu

three contains tWo parts.In the
and the original work

first part,the paper makes



brief touch

on

Songling

Liaozhaizhiyi.The other part

is the introduction to

the three translators

and their versions. analysis of

Chapter four is the main part of the thesis,which deals with the detailed translator’S

subjectivity

from

the perspective

of Steiner’S

fourfold

hermeneutic

translation motion in the

comparative study of

the three English versions.



A Study on Translator's Subjectivity in English Versions of Liaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of George Steiner’s Hermeneutic Motion

Chapter

II

Translator’S

Subjectivity

in

Light

of

Steiner’S

Hermeneutic Motion

2.1 The

Subjectivity of Translator

Not only oral but also written translators

are

the ligament between two languages
are

and cultures.From the very beginning of that many restrictions by critics.As
our

career,translators

ignored and given

Chinese scholar writers the bad

Yu Guangzhong says that

translators are shadowed by the the good
SO

original
and

and

whether how hard they ascribes to the

translate,

translation OWeS

to writers

translation

translators,

it’S thoroughly hard to be



translator(余光中2002:55).Until
translator's

in the modern


translation theory in topic.

2沪century,the

subjective

status

became

heated

“Subjectivity

refers to the alienation

of

the

subject’S

essential power in its

objective

activity,the characteristics of the

subject
serve

that

remolding,influencing,manipulating
the
case

objects and

making the

objects

it'’(王玉梁,1995).In subjectivity

of literary

translation,ifi my translator’S
remolding
ability it into

opinion,translator's

is mainly coni:erned with the

of combining

all the

cultural and
text

lingual factors

of source

text and

the appropriate

target

in which the

translator’S cultural

background,educational experience,translating aims,and
the

personal taste involved。So

same original

work definitely has varied versions.The the

analysis
of the

of the

translation
studies

must be focused
on

on

translators.Nowadays,the emphasis
is inspiring

translation

the

translator's subjectivity

and

enlightening.

2。薹.重Former status of the translator

The
Buddhist

history of written translation Scriptures in the Han

can

be ascended up to the translation of the China

Dynasty in

and

Ancient

Rome-Greece



A Study

on

Translator's Subjectivity in English Versions of Liaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of George Steiner’s Hermeneutic Motion

translation in western world 3BC and the oral translation must appear earlief.During those thousands of years,translators werc treated
as

transparent,invisible and instance,translators
ale

unconsidered element纽the whole translational chain。For named knitting
as

tongue,match-makes
parts,translating

servant,servant

serving for two masters,thread

two

worker,translating machine,painter,microphone
SO on.

dancer

in the chains,traitor and

Nord states her own opinion

on

the status of the translator in Translating

as a

purposeful

Activity

that:Translators are
are

treated much more like“mercenaries”or

“servants”when they

asked to subordinate their own


judgment

of what haS to be

done in favor of the structural features of for different addresses

text

that was produced in another culture

and

sometimes also for different purposes.Such states,which
not
even

are

not at all that of functionalist approaches,does

allow translators to

negotiate with their apparent master,the mystical statement talks about the subordinate identity of the the original works ask them to do without

source

text(2001:118—19).This
must do what

translators.They
thoughts.

any individual

In the theoretical research field,the main factors that have

obscured

translator's the the

subjectivity
prevailing

are the holy position of the

source

text ill the

translation process。and
text

translation

criteria.The writers of the

source

are considered

as

creators but

translators are servants.Our


Chinese scholar
or

Yang Jiang and

says that
cannot

translation is

grind for translator must follow his
or

her master

be

self-assertive.And he
other is the

she has

two

masters to

serve:one

is the original work,the

reader(杨绛qtd.in许均2003:318)。It
translators translation
to

is the traditional view that

translation requires

be

faithful.The basic idea of the traditional

translation
of the

thinks that

as

the pure

language-transfer

activity

just

the

copY

source

text.Oyang Zhen makes this statement that good translation must be is
to

transparent,that

say

readers

Can

read

the

original

work

through

the

translation......translation
not the

should reflect the characteristics of the writer

and his work


translators’(欧阳桢qtd.in罗新璋1984:932).
source
text oriented

In the

translation

theory,the

source

text is the center and has

the sacred

position,however

its translated version is dedvative and


inferior,and

A Study


Oil

Translator's

Subjectivity

in English Versions ofLiaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of

。George Steiner’S

Hermene—utic—Mo—t—ion——————————
invisible.The

correspondingly translators
can

the

translator

is

subservient or

metaphors

for


open OUt this

bias。The

translator
as

as a

transparent window between

viewer and the thing viewed;the translator message;the translator
language author
as a

spirit—-channeller of the original
source

self-effacing servant who swears fealty to the such metaphors. role of

and SO many



In traditional

translation studies,the
as a

translator

has been long

confined

to

the requirements and duties

message communicator who must owns

linguistic
source
in

competence,translation language.The translation

skills,knowledge of the culture and history of the has
never

translator

been

regarded

as

the

subjective

identity

activity.Considering the

subject of

translator,such aspects are discussed as skills,their talent the

the translator’S linguistic

competence,their knowledge,translation

and virtue,which are all about requirements for qualified

translators.However
are

translator's

personality,temperament,character,psychology etc

seldom mentioned. been treated

In short,the genuine active dement—translator in unfairly as invisible and

translation activity has translation
history.

transparent for



long time in

2。1.2 Recognition of the translator’S

subjectivity

In the last several decades,translation study has undergone gradually the change through studies
on

language and culture
to

to

the translator symbolizing
monism to pluralism.
on



great

progress

of the study from

object

subject and from

In the 1970s,as the“culture turn”rose,the research 趣的the field of translation

translators

was brought

study.弧e

school of Feminism and Hermeneutics

expressed theoretical support for translator's impenetrate
the

subjectivity.Translator's subjectivity
and embodies
not

whole

translational

process

only

on

the

understandings,explanations,the
choice of text,the aim of

recreation at the lingual level but also skill

on

the

translation,the policy,the

and

SO on.

Translation is far more than simple replacement in the lexical and grammatical
level but“one abstracts a‘mental conception’of the original text,then
use

that mental

conception

as a

kind of general criterion against which to test each sentence during


A Study on Translator’S Subjectivity in English Versions ofLiaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of George Steiner’S Hermeneutic Motion the formulation of new,translated Functionalism from

text”(Holmes,1988:82).
claims that:translators enable

the functional perspective

communication

to

take place between members of different culture communities.

They bridge the gap between situations where differences in verbal and non—verbal behavior,expectations,knowledge and perspectives
are

such that there is not enough by themselves

common

ground for the sender Nord

and receiver

to

communicate effectively

(Christiane
In
our

2001:17).
are also many scholars
set foot in this research field.Xu Jun

country,there
treason

wrote Creative

and the Establishment of Translational subjectivity in Chinese


Translators Journal in 2003.Ge Xiaoqin writes

book talks about the

translator's

subjectivity

pressed by Shanghai Yiwen in 2006.And many graduate students write

their theses about that the Translator"s Perspective

subject,for

example:Chen

Fang‘4

Hermeneutic Approach

to

Subjectiv妙),Yang Liu(On

the Translator's Creative
etc.

Subjectivity#om
Treason of

the

of Hermeneutics),Liu Xiaoli(The Subjectivity)and

Literary

Translation—From the Translator’S

In western translational studies,some theories are relative for the

translator's

subjectivity.Eugene

Nida’S

Equivalence

Theory

is

one

of

them.His

formal
between

equivalence tries to reach the closest possible match of form and content

source


text and target text

and

his

dynamic equivalence focuses on
the receptor’S

the achievement of

closest

natural


equivalence and underlines

response.Formal
to

equivalence is

means of providing some degree of insight in


the

lexical,

grammatical

or

structural form of

source

text.Dynamic

equivalence

prefers the

terms semantic and communicative translation
source and
text

and the translator's reading of the

is

one

which tends

to be imposed upon

the readership of the TL version
as

the

translator’S task

should be

to“preserve,as far

possible,the range of

possible

responses;in other words,not to reduce the dynamic role of the reader'’

(Hatim and Mason,1990).
The second theory is Reception Theory which is represented by Gadamer's
student Robert Jauss whose hermeneutics has
on a

strong influence

on a

strong

influence
no

the leading figure in reception theory.His main idea is the literary work has


A Study on Translator's Subjectivity in English Versions ofLiaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of George Steiner’S

Hermene—utic—Moti~on一一一一——…~一
just
and value。From

sense

and life without being read.It is through the reader's reading that grants the

work with and

significance

and reflects the value of work.It is endow the text with meaning

the reader’S reading the perspective

understanding that

of reader-response theory,the own interpretation,and consideration. The last theory

translator

has to concretize the text’S“blank'’from his the reader’s reception capability into

meanwhile

take

is the theoretical basis for this

thesis—Hermeneutics.In
can

application of Hermeneutics in translation,translation activity
process of interpretation which consists message the speaker has To produce


be regarded as the

in recognizing what relatively univocal

constructed

on

the polysemic basis of the

common

lexicon.

relatively univocal

discourse

with polysemic words and to identify this

univocal intention in the reception of message is the first and most elementary work of interpretation.The connection between hermeneutics

and

translation depends

mainly

on

how to interpret the differences in culture and thought besides those in
to understand

language

only,and how

the

source

language text and express in the

target language appropriately.

2.1.3 Factors involved in the translator’S subjectivity

As the

recognition

of the translator’S

subjectivity,the

factors influence in the
translator should

translation activity also approaches in the translation be viewed as


studies."The

creative person whose role in the

translating process

is not transparent’’

(Susan Bassnet,1980)Translator’S
education,knowledge,and
translator’s being

social—economic status,cultural background,

personal experience are all the factors that influence the Richard Lattimore says:”NO translator

translating process.As

can escape

colored

by his own time,and it is wrong to try too hard to cut free from this
cannot translate in a

influence.One

vacuum."(qtd.in
be

Nida

1964:106)

The

translator's

subj}ectivity

call

manifested in

his choice of the SL text,his

cultural purpose of

translating,his

strategies and manipulation of the expected



A Study on Translator's Subjectivity in English Versions ofLiaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of George Steiner’S Hermeneut.ic Motion cultural effect in the perfect of the translated

work(查明建,2003)In stands(the
SOUrCe

fact,in the
culture,the

translation process,translator's selection of cultural
target culture and the middle-way between choosing

two cultures)plays



decisive role in

translation

strategy

and

methods.Then different cultural
TL

translation

strategies come after:SL

culture-oriented forcignization and

culture-oriented

domestication.No matter what cultural stand the translator chooses,it represents the translator’s cultural consciousness.What attitude the translator takes depends
on

his

subjectivity.
In fact,different

translational periods

have different

subjective


factors involved.In

the preparation period,the translator’S purpose plays

initial and motivational role.

弧e

purpose of translational activity comes from the translator's impression and

evaluation of ST.Hermans points out‘‘Without such intentionality,without taking into
account to

the function which the translation is meant to selⅣe

or

the problem it is trying pointless,or wholly

solve,the

translator's

choices appear

whimsical,or

idiosyncratic'’(1999:39)The

purpose of translation is either to satisfy the reading

needs of general readers,or to offer some reference for the professionals in

certain

fields,or to introduce foreign cultures and thoughts,or to blazon forth the domestic culture to the foreign countries in order to culture,or to gain the

consolidate
is

the

legitimacy

of the domestic
or she

commercial benefits.There

an objective,before he

translates,determining the direction of

translation,and

therefore,helps the translator

decide suitable translating methods in the act of

translation.

After the preparation,the translator enters the period of interpreting.In this period,

subjectivity is

displayed fully.At this time,the translator should

possess

the capacities

of literary appreciation

and aesthetic

taste.Hc

or

she has

to

discover the

connotation

in thoughts and aesthetic significance,and analyzes the literary value and social meaning of the works。
After

the two former steps,the translator

enters

the essential
or

period

of the

translation-the

creating period。The translator must combine his

her understandings

and feelings toward the the

original

text

in the first

two steps,and

melt them suitably into
or

language

transformation based

on

his translation objectives and guided with his


A Study

on

Translator's

Subjectivity in English Versions

ofLiaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of

George Steiner,s Hermeneutic Motion her translation principles.In this period,the
to

subjectivity

of the translator is reflected

the tiptop。The more

excellent the literature is,the richer its inside

literary

significance and aesthetic meaning ale,and the harder the translation is,and therefore,
the higher the requirement is for the Hans Vermer proposes


subjectivity of the

translator.

branch of the descriptive approach Skopos

Theory which

suggests that the text world of the translation should be selected according to the intended target-text function.Skopos is


Greek word for‘purpose.’

2.2 Steiner’S Hermeneutic Motion

Hermeneutics猫the philosophical theory appeared in the late 1960s has the
ingenerate relation with translation.Due tO its intrinsic with language and translation, hermeneutic translation study becomes


new perspective of

contemporary

translation

studies。

Nowadays,many

attentions

are

paid

on

the

translator’S subjectivity

under the view forward the

of Hermeneutics.English

famous translator George

Steiner(1929-)puts
in

fourfold which are emphasized the translator's
the litbrary translator's

subjectivity


translation

process from

Hermeneutics perspective and offers

new如甜e

for studying the

subjectivity.

2.2.1 Hermeneutics in relation to translation

Hermeneuties gains its position

at

the very beginning

as a

study of the interpretation

of the biblical scripts.As the literary variety flourishes,the translational experiences are spread to handle the matters in comnlon texts’interpretation.Hermeneuties does
not have

to draw

support

from translation,but translation

call

not



accomplished

without

hermeneuties(袁洪庚,1994).

2.2。1。1 The origin and development of Hermeneutics

10

A Study on Translator's Subjectivity in English Versions ofLiaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of George Steiner’S Hermeneutic Motion



Hermeneutics OWeS its

origiIl

to

the Greek word“hermeneuien”,which means


to

“interpret"。As the verbal form,“hermeneuien'’derives from the name of
Greek mythology—Hermes,who serves
as a

god in

messenger for Zeus and gods

at

Olympus.

However,as



matter of fact,Hermes not only takes messages of Zeus to the world,


but also plays That means

role of interpreter to make decrees understood by ordinary mortals。

Hermes

interprets“what is beyond human understanding into the form
can

that human intelligence

grasp".(Palmer,1969:13)

In the middle ages,it developed into theological hermeneuties,as it is mainly applied to the interpretation of the decrees of God,or the interpretation of the Bible,

which

is known
are

as

biblical

exegesis.In addition
to

to

theological hermeneutics,

hermeneutics

also

applied

many

other

subjects,such瑟theological
hermeneutics

hermeneutics,legal hermeneutics,philological hermeneutics.In
this thesis,we

and philosophical

just

put focus On philosophical hermeneutics which

has undergone two stages since its birth,namely,traditional by

hermeneutics,represented

Schleirmacher and Dilthey,and modem hermeneutics,with Heidegger and

Gadamer being its representatives.
The traditional proposes that the background
tO

hermeneutics highlights
translator


the author's role in the text

interpretation,It

should try his best explore the author’S life and study the


grasp

the

original

meaning of

the

source

text。弧e

pioneer

Schleirmacher is generally regarded毳s the father of philosophical
thinks understanding

hermeneutics。He

and interpretation


are

closely interwoven;every problem of

interpretation is in fact

problem of understanding。On translation,he divides
translator leaves the writer alone
as

two
as

types of

translation

strategies:first‘'the

much

possible and moves the reader towards the writer’’;second,the translator‘‘leaves the
reader alone After

and

moves the writer toward the the end

reader'’.(Munday,2001:28)
Dilthey like Schleirmacher
believes that

Schleirmacher,at

of薹严century,Wilhelm

seeks after the

original meaning

but he prefers

language objectivity and

human subjective experience

must be understood in the

form of all objective,physical

expression。弧e main idea

is

the"experience-expression-understanding'’formula。 hermeneutics,the
limitation and

Along with the development of the study of
ll

A Study Oil Translator's

Subjectivity

in English Versions ofLiaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of

George Steiner's Herme.neutic Motion——————————————.。——

deficiency of the traditional hermeneutics
Based
to
on

are

gradually realized by some philosophers.

their forerunners’achievement,these philosophers contribute their own gift

make the theory of hermeneutics more and more between their theory theories
are

convincing.Owing

to

the

distinctions

and

the traditional hermeneutics in

some key
one

concepts,their

called modem hermeneutics。Heidegger Was

of the

great philosophers in the 20th century.He

is regarded as



founder of
to

modem
own

hermeneutics.For Heidegger,understanding is the power

grasP

one’S

possibilities for being。It is the existing mode of being,and it is temporal,intentional and historical. It is said that hermeneutics did not reach its worldwide

philosophical maturity and

acquire the

recognition

that it deserves until Hans-George Gadamer published his

magnum opus,Truth and Method.In that masterpiece,he investigates the problem of
hermeneutics in in

great

detail,including

its

origin,key philosophers

and

their

contributions

this field.He,of course,also

probes into the defects of his
hermeneutics is not

predecessor’S theory,and puts forward his designed for translation studies but
as a

assumptions.Though

method of the interpretation of literature,

many of its views help to understand the nature of translation。In Truth and Method,
Gadamer

makes



brave

assertion:’'Every

translation

is

at

the

same

time an

interpretation."(1999:346)

2.2.1.2 Hermeneutics

as

the translation theory

To translation domain,Gadamer’S Hermeneutics iS the most relevant.One of the
three parts in his

masterwork

Truth and Method deals with the language field.
of


Gadamer

says that“the

translation

text,however much the translator may have


felt himself into his author,cannot be simply the mind of the author but translator with


re-awakening

of the original event in

recreation of the text that is guided by the way the
one can

understands

what is said in it,No
not simply with

doubt that we are dealing here
on

interpretation,and

reproduction,A new light falls

the text

from the other language

and for

the readers of
12

it'’(1975:347).

A Study on Translator's Subjectivity in English Versions ofLiaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of George Steiner’S Hermeneutic Motion
. .

To the his
or

subjectivity

of the translator,the hermeneutics claims that the translator has
Or

her own fore?understanding

prejudice,i.e。,his

cultural

background,


knowledge,system,philosophical ideas and world outlook.The translator stays in

specifically

historical society,and is endowed by history with these

qualifications.

Before the translator gets down埝his understanding and interpretation,the translator

unscrambles the original

text

with his fore—understanding

or

prejudice.In

other words,

fore-understanding
in

or

prejudice of

the translator allows him to display his

subjectivity

translation.
Hermeneutics is also enlightening the later theories,and therefore advances the

development of the

translation studies.Deconstruction
on

rose

in the middle of 1960s iS
structure,
essence.

philosophically
disorganizing Deconstruction translator

grounded the

Hermeneutics and featured with breaking the
the
center

system,eliminating

and

negating

the

announces

the uncertainty of the original text’S meaning,SO the find the

should

try

to

meaning

of the otis"nal

text

with his/her

subjectivity.Deconstruction
our

enriches the theories of present translation studies and

knowledge

of the translation

studies,and advances
one

the birth

and

development of

new theories at the same time.And is Jauss whose“literary

of the representatives of Reception Aesthetics rooted

history”theoretically

from Hermeneutics.The

fundamental feature of Reception Aesthetics
literary

is to place the reader to the


center

of the

and

aesthetic research.Reception Aesthetics offers

lot of hints for the

reader study in the field of “reader role”of the Habermas

translation

studies,and complement some ideas for the

translator

in the process of interpreting the text.

as one

of the most influential

ideologists

in the

West

tried埝establish



theory of communicative action which has similarities with the hermeneutics of Gadamer.It Can be said that hermeneutics is the theoretical basis of the perfection and development of Habermas’S theory.The main idea of his theory is the translator call
not

get rid of the

influence

of cultural tradition,Call rethink and criticize these

traditional factors。Another

contribution

of Habermas is be referred
to

his“inter-subjectivity”。In
the relation between the

translation,the‘‘inter-subjectivity’’can translator and
the

author,and between

the
13

translator and

the reader of the

translated

A Study

on

Translator's

Subjectivity in

English Versions ofLiaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of ..——。

.George Steiner’S Herm—en—eutic Motion——

text,meanwhile,can

be

referred

tO

the relation between

the translator and the

characters in the text.Habermas’theory instructs the development of translation studies.

2。2。2 Steiner's Hermeneutics in translation process

George

Steiner(1929-)‘S

influential

After

Babel:aspects

of

language

and

translation which is undoubtedly regarded as“the most translation

widely known work in the key

theory since

the Second

World War'’(Venuti,2000:124)is

advance of the hermeneutics of translation.The first edition of After Babel was published in 1975.And then two subsequent editions appear in 1992 and 1998。In 2001,this masterpiece Was reprinted by

Shanghai

Foreign l anguages Education Press. the shining point for Steiner

The fifth chapter,“The Hermeneutic Motion’’is expatiates his own ideas about

translation from

the view of hermeneutics.

2.2.2.1 Steiner's fourfold steps translation theory

In

After

Babel,Steiner analyzes

every aspect of translation from fundamental

conditions

of interpretation and the basic hermeneutic concepts to the most intricate of
to

linguistic constructions.He wants his hermeneutic motion
ideal model,a map for the apocalyptic act

be的氇an

unattainable

of translation

that will

transform humanity,

and

an

empirical taxonomy into which he

can

fit individual translation.In chapter five,
act of

Steiner proposes that“the transfer of meaning,is the translator's author

hermeneutic

motion,the

elicitation and appropriative

fourfold”(2001:312).In

the process of weaving and matching horizon with that of the original

pre—understanding,prejudice and
text

and rendering the original

into

another language,the translator's

subjective

and initiative action is divided into four concrete

steps:trust,aggression(or

penetration),incorporation(or embodiment)and compensation(or restitution).
The first step is“initiative trust”,which underwritten by previous experience
14

is virtually all“investment of but epistemologically exposed

belief,
and

A Study on Translator’s Subjectivity in English Versions ofLiaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of George Steiner’S Hermeneutic Motion psychologically hazardous,in the meaningfulness,in the seriousness of the facing strictly speaking,adverse believe in the in such
a source or,

text”(Steiner,2001:312),in other

words,the translator must

text there is

something meaningful and interpretable.Persisting
or

belief,the translator will try her

his best to reproduce the

source

text.The

initiative trust is essential for translation,but the question is where the trust comes

from and how much.Steiner

states

that it depends on the different literary genres.For

instance,in

the

case

of medieval translators of Bible,the“something'’may turn out to

be‘‘everything'’,because they were overwhelmed by the holy message。And Steiner also claims that“Nonsense

rhymes…glossolalia
or

are

untranslatable

because

they are

lexically non-communicative

deliberately

insignificant”(2001:361).
aggression.The second is

Steiner proposes that“After trust translator is incursive

comes

move of the

and extractive."(ibid:314)Aggression understand

the

translator’S

invasion of the sourc黔text in order to

it.In the inter-lingual translation,the
text is a建unavoidable

understanding,recognition and interpretation of the source
mode of invasive

and

exhaustive attack.He quotes Saint Jerome’S description of brings home the meaning of the brings

translation that

the

translator

source

text as a captive.

He says:“the translator point clear'he

invades,extracts,and
the
source

home."(ibid:31∞To

make his

compares source

text to all open

mine.The translator
text

extracts the

meaning of the

text

and

leaves the

source

like

an open-cast

mine with

empty scars.This aggression is regarded裕the confrontation between two different

languages

or

different thoughts existed in the

translator’S intuition

by Tan

Zaixi(2000:

266)However,the

move of“aggression’’enables translators to interpret the ST

diversely。Because of the“aggression”,some texts have been now they the
are

translated

SO

well that

only read in translation.Obviously,in this movement of“aggression”, the translator is
or

subjectivity of

hi曲lighted.

The懿rd stage

move for Steiner is

incorporation:”Though all
are

decipherment”,he

states,“is aggressive

and,at one

level,destructive,there

differences in the motive from
on

of appropriation and in the context of‘the bringing the the

back’纾(2001:314)。Different

second

movement of aggression which aims at the ST,‘‘incorporation’’focuses way how he manipulates

translator’S

the

IT.This

stage

includes

two

AStudy

on

Translator's

Subjectivity

in English Versions ofLiaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of George Steiner’S Hermeneutic Motion

categories—incorporation of meaning and that of form.Noticeably,this incorporation is
not made in or

into



vacuum。弧e native

semantic field,which,in Steiner’S opinion, already“extent and crowded”.So when he
has to adopt different strategies to

exerts great influence on the translator,is

is dealing with

the

source

text,the

translator

assimilate the new elements in the ST.Steiner points out that the two pOleS of this

assimilation

are

respectively‘‘complete

domestication’’and‘‘permanent

strangeness

and

marginality”.
or

Compensation

restitution is the fourth

and final

step which

is intended

to

compensate for the loss due to“the appropriative rapture of the translator'’.As Steiner says:“The

translator,the

exegetist,the reader

is faithful to his text,makes

his

response responsible,only
integral
presence,which

when he endeavors to restore the his

balance
has

of force,of disrupted'’

appmpriative

comprehension

(ibid:3 14)The

initial move of

trust puts

translator

off balance because the

translator

“leans toward'’the confronting text,then encircles

and

invades cognitively.When he

comes home laden,thus again off-balance,having caused disequilibrium throughout the system by taking away from“the other’and by adding,though possibly with
ambiguous

consequence,to

theft

own.珏o

system is

off-tilt。弧e

hermeneutic act

must compensate.If it is to bc authentic,it must mediate into exchange and restored
parity.

2.2.2.2 The translator’S

subjeetivity embodies

in Steiner’S theory

Steiner's Hermeneutic Motion provides firm foundation for the research

on

the

translator’S subjectivity
comprehension in the

in the overall

translation

process,which is in fact



process of

source

language and interpretation in the target


language.

The

first step is the‘‘trust’’which is

precondition

for the

translator's choice of the
to Steiner.

ST.The The

trust was held by the translator’S‘previous experience’according

previous experience is from

the translator’S knowledge,cultural and social

background,personal character and

etc..The previous experience

also cannot appears cultural

without foundation,which will probably be combined with the
16

historical and

A Study

on

Translator's

Subjectivity


in

En誊ish

Versions ofLiaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of


George Steiner’S Hermeneutic Motion
as

background

or

the pre-understanding,such

his

or

her individuality,preference, he lives in。Just because of

personal values

and

the influence from the

circumstance

the trust,the translator will be inspired to choose different types of the text best to

and

try

translate.Here

we

can

find some good examples.Guo Moruo was fascinated Yiduo was

deeply with Shelley’S sonnets,while readers.The convey

poems,Wen

just

interested in translating Browning's

Liang Shiqiu

exhausted his energy to introduce Shakespeare to Chinese
can

reason

for their choices is that they trust those works they choose and

something important

meaningful

to Chinese readers.This trust can’t be

apart from the translator's historical background and personal serving as In


experience

which

driving force for the

translator’S

exertion of his

subjectivity.

the aggression
to

step,舔Steiner mentioned in his book,it is Heidegger's

contribution

have shown that

understanding,recognition,interpretation are



compacted,unavoidable mode of arrack.The motion of aggression does not mean that the

translator

will

betray

and destroy the original text then and

translate

it at will.However, appropriate and

each act of attack

translator’S understandings
entity that we

comprehending

must

another

translate

into,which is

obviously“invasive

and

exhaustive”.According to Steiner,understanding in translating is always partial。That
is to say,in this motion something

important

will be brought home,others will be

negated because of the involvement of the

translator.The translator’s

aggression

makes what is alien and foreign stop

to犯a

stranger and unintelligible

being。

However,it must be pointed out that in the process of aggression different translators will

have different understandings and thus different translated versions.So the
of aggression is

process

also

the situation in which the

translator embeds

his

or

her

own personal traits and creativity.
The third motion

comes incorporation,appropriation translation
will be

or

importation.In

this step,

Steiner states that any

influenced by the translator's native

semantic
but to


field.The

newly—acquired information will not be

arranged

into



vacuum,

completely domestic

language background。At

the same time,our own being traditional symbolic

will be modified by each act of appropriation。‘‘No

language,no

set or cultural ensemble imports without risk of being
17

transformed”(Steiner,2001:315).

A Study

011 Translator's

Subjectivity

in

En蘑ish Versions

of Liaozlmizhiyi under the Perspective of

George Steiner’S Hermeneutic Motion

It may bring about the transformation of culture

or

the transformation of the native
to

structure。There will be another condition,according contagions of facility triggered by the antique
or

Steiner."there


can

be

foreign import.After
or

time,the


native organism will react,endeavoring to neutralize certain version,we
cannot

expel the

foreign body.”In
structure

demonstrate the process the
we
or

native

was

transformed semantic source

by the

foreign import.So

just

consider the influence the native

field of the translator exerts his

her appropriation of information in the
never a

text。As we know,translation it self is between languages; every

simple mechanic process of
differs from

code—switching

translator

another in

his

adaptation of the

meani’ng,his diction,his

arrangement of sentence structure

and other

concrete choices,which ale
different native process

all the translator's choices

subjective

factors,So the translator's

semantic fields,their

and their

creation in the

incorporation

justify their subjectivity

clearly.

Steiner remarks:”the

hermeneutic

motion is

dangerously

incomplete;it

is

dangerous because it is incomplete,if it

lacks its fourth stage,the piston—stroke,勰it
to

were,which completes the cycle."As the final stage,compensation is required
restore

balance。AS we mentioned,any original text bears its own cultural aSpects such

as tradition,cultural stands,custom,historical experience and distinct characteristics
in native speech aspects such as grammar,diction,syntax and rhetoric.That

means

that there must be something unique beyond translation between different cultures mid

languages.We Can
of breakages in always stage of Thus the
restore

see

that through the first three stages there is



dimension of loss,

translation,and

the translator’S“understanding is always partial,


subject

to emendation",so compensation becomes
SO as

necessary completing

translation process

to achieve equilibrium

and



most satisfying version.

hermeneutic act must compensate.For Steinef,the

compensation in order to

balance is"morals balance between
causes

of translation”。So the translator is creative the

and positive
or

in

seeking

original

text and the

translated version.He and

she

can

make up the loss

by the barriers between different cultures
as

languages

through different ways,such

footnotes and appendixes,in which the dimension of

compensation just

can

be decided by the translator.
{塞

A Study On Translator's Subjectivity in En喾ish Versions ofLiaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of


George Steine——r’S Hermeneuti_c

Motion————————————

Chapter III

Introduction

tO Pu

Songling’S liaozhaizhiyi and Its

English Versions

3.1 Pu Songling and His Liaozhaizhiyi

During 1600-?1670 place in Chinese



heart?-lost mall wrote



great novd which seized

all

unmatched

even

in the whole world literary history.That is Pu Songling and his

work Liaozhaizhiyi.He lived in Oing Dynasty which operated imperial examination
to

select

the talents。Pu

Songling failed

in

the

examination

and felt

lost in

brotherhood.So he used his whole energy to complete Liaozhaizhiyi which high reputation special

enjoys


angle…fox

even

today.In the book,Pu Songling depicts the turbid society from ghost tales to express his own happiness and

sadness。Many

editions of Liaozhaizhiyi appear in Operas

forms of

literature,teleplays,movies,Beijing

and

particularly in

many

scholars’research field.It has been translated into

more than 20 foreign languages and 60 editions。Among them the earliest and the
most editions are Japanese.In
our

classical literary works,Liaozhaizhiyi as



novel

’possesses the most translated editions.

3.1.1 An introduction to Pu Songling and his writing

background

Pu

Songling(1640—1715)lived

under the rule

of

Shunzhi

and

Kangxi,which is



pedod of turbulence and conflicts in the early Qing Dynasty.He was born in Zibo of

Shandong

province.He showed his literature gift in his childhood.At that time‘
to weigh people's knowleAge

imperial examination is the only way
government effort
on

and the

way to be

officers.So

Pu

Songling

like many youth with lofty ideals made his all

that

examination,but
and

he did not get great Success.Even though he still stick

to take

examination

finally got

ShuiGong(岁贡)at
collect
19

the age

of

72.In fact,early

from 1661,Pu

Songling

had the hobby to

stories about foxes,ghosts

and some

A Study on Translator's Subjectivity in English Versions of Liaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of George Steiner’s Hermeneutic Motion other strange events.Especially,as we all known that Pu puts


tea booth provided

free water in order to let guests tell stories.1670 the hardest time in his life,he created Lianxiang.In 1679,the rudimentary form of Liaozhaizhiyi included

Jiaona(娇娜)

Yingning(璎宁)appeared 自志≥Wangshi
then Pu


and Pu Songling wrote prelude named

Liaozhaizizhi(聊斋

poet in Qing Dynasty spread that book after reading Liaozhaizhiyi

and

his work got more

and

more attention. beginning of the Qing

The historical background of this masterpiece is in the

Dynasty.At that time,the authority massacred the Hans and
organized literary inquisition,in order to

contemporaneously,

consolidate their political power.The
his empire to restore
even

emperor began

to consider a change on his

policy of controlling

and

develop the society.Kangxi

resumed and

literary inquisition,and

decreed of

operation rules,such as the form imperial

model of eight-part essay,and the

subject

examinations

for better management and also solidification of his mental

ruling tool—Cheng Yi and Zhu Xi’theory.

3.1.2 An introduction to liaozhaizhiyi and its influence

Liaozhaizhiyi is the classic Songling's magnum abroad

collection

of the short stories in Qing Dynasty

and

Pu

opus.ne

whole book owns 491 pieces of stories and

covers

subject matters.Many through


stories strongly animadvert the

corruption and darkness
stories.As the writing
ale

of that society

talking about fox?ghosts and long time and the
sources

strange

process experiences

of the stories changes

different and

complicated,Pu's

attitude towards life

and society and
bad

and

his world view is

conflict,the main mind of the

book

is good

intermingled and complicated.



And it also includes some feudal ethic ideas the

and fatalistic

comeuppance。But it reveals


social conflict and darkness

and expresses demotic desires at
are

certain

extent.

In Liaozhaizhiyi,the characters

brilliant
are

and lively,the narrative plots

are

complicate

and eccentric,the structures

precise

and skillful,the depictions ale
are

exquisite.弧e Most
human

beautiful and the best quality stories
and

the pure love between

and fox—ghost.human

ghost,and human and human.


A Study

on

Translator’S

Subjectivity in

English Versions of Liaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of George S.teiner’S Hermeneutic Motion

In the artistic achievements,Liaozhaizhiyi goes farther than the novels in Tang Dynasty which
are

known

as

the

maturity

period

of

Chinese
are

novel,though

Liaozhaizhiyi really inherits from them in many aspects.There pieces in Liaozhaizhiyi and the

more classical
that

historical

vestiges

are

much

less

means

Liaozhaizhiyi is more like“novel”according to the definition definitions:1 is


of

novel。Here are two 2 things铀『c

long written story about imaginary people

and events

unlike anything that has been done,experienced,or created

before.(from
stories and

Collins

English

Dictionary)Pu Songling just

writes the true

romantic
use

strange

stories not history or approximate history

and

he doesn’t

historical form.He pulls

the true novel style from tangly literature-history mixed situation.

At the very beginning of writing,Liaozhaizhiyi was copied and then
completing it Was spread abroad.In the middle of 1800s,it was

after

translated

into more the

than twelve common

versions including English,French,German

and Japanese and became
in

cultural wealth

shared

by锺the
on

people

the

world。In

the chief Britain

encyclopedias,there

are

comments

Liaozhaizhiyi,for
SO

examples,in

Encyclopedia:Liaozhai is full of romantic tincture and Encyclopedia,Liaozhai peaks up
to

bewitching;in France

the

Chinese

Classical essays;American

Encyclopedia praises Pu Songling’S satire technique and etc. In China,the countrywide seminar

named

Pu Songling learning colloquium
creates

and

International Study of Liaozhai seminar converge many researchers and theses.And the research angles cover
SO

many

philosophy,aesthetics,folklore,religion
countries,there are
also some

(Daoism&Buddhism)and

on。Even in the other Pu Songling.

institutes and magazines for it

and

3.2There English Versions of Liaozhaizhiyi

As Liaozhaizhiyi reaches

SO

large literary SUCCESS,it has become
people in the



common

spiritual wealth

enjoyed

by

all the

world.As

early弱Daoguang
from then on,it has

emperor’S reign,Liaozhaizhiyi was introduced to

Japan.And

21

A Study 011 Translator's Subjectivity in English Versions ofLiaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of George Steiner’S Hermeneu.tic Motion many foreign versions.Until now,it has been translated into 29 languages and has more than 50 English versions.Among those

一一一
are

English

versions,there

three

major

versions—the earliest

may

be

Herbert Allen Giles’version published in 1906 by

Kelly&Walsh,Ltd,entitled than
one

Strange Stories

from



Chinese Studio which owns more

hundred and sixty pieces.Chinese scholars Yang

xianyi

and Giadys Yang’S

dispersive seventeen

translated

pieces was published in
one

Panda

Books issued Selected


死胁of Liaozhai
translated by

in 1981.And the other

is Strange tales Victor

from

make—do Stud/o by Chinese

Ma矗brother,Denis.C Beijing
Foreign

and

H.mair,published

Publishing giant

Language

Press in 1989.

3.2.1 Herbert Giles’version

English famous sinologist Herbert history and sinology.He used to be


Allen Giles(1845-1935)is



master of Chinese

diplomat in China and his identity offers him the

chances to get in touch with the high rank and well—educated Chinese people。So he gets great accomplishments in Chinese

history,philosophy,religion,language Chinese-English

and


Confucian
number of

studies。Giles compiled



dictionary in 1892,wrote

books on

the Chinese history and culture including Chinese Sketches,the

Civilization of China,a history of Chinese Literature.He translated some Chinese classics like The Strange Stories

from



Chinese Studio,the Hsi Yuan

Lu,or

Instructions to coroners,San Tzu Chi,A Giles has high Chinese culture and his works.His

Thousand

Character Essay and Fo Guo Ji. convey the style of the original

translation

can

The

Strange

Storiesfrom a

Chinese Studio reveals the
even

contents

and style of

Liaozhaizhiyi and influences the west greatly
He selected more

today. from Pu

than

160

pieces


to

translate

Songling’S Liaozhaizhiyi

and

his

The

Strange Stories

from

Chinese Studio became the most amount edition in

western versions.For the first time,this edition was published in 1880 and in 1908 the
revised edition appeared.In the new prelude,Giles said his
to

translation

was according
to Arabian

Dan Minglun’S(1782—1853)translation and he compared Liaozhaizhiyi

Nights.He

thou曲t

Liaozhaizhiyi developed
22

and

enriched Chinese satire

and

in the

A Study

on

Translator's

Subjectivity

in English Versions ofLiaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of

George Steiner’S Hermeneutic Motion

west only Thomas
could parallel it.

Carlyle’S(1795—1881

an

English writer,critic and

historian)style

3.2.2 Yang Xianyi and Giadys Yang's version Yang

Xianyi(1914-)becomes

the master in Chinese translational field because of

his successful translation and profound cultural make great researches
on

accomplishments。Many

scholars

himself and his works and give high

evaluation。His

translation wins international reputation. Yang Xianyi work Hong Lou

and

his English wife Gladys

Yang(1919-1999)translated
Song poems

the great
SO

Meng,Analects of盈帽and
naIIle

Lu Xun‘S novels and

on.Liaozhaizhiyi the English

as

Selected瑟酝ofLiaozhai wlfich
are

Was published

in Panda Books in 1981 is also their translation.Although there
stories in it,this

only seventeen
as

couple

keep the


original

style and intact cultural elements

much

as

they call.Yang Xianyi had

high evaluation for this book and this book manifests his

ideas

on

translation and

his translation style.Although this version is not the best

work of Yang's translation,it still

enjoys



higja reputation for diffuse



wide range of

knowledge in ancient Chinese literature
its interest and value to the present day.

to English—speaking countries,which retains

3.23 Denis C。and Victor

H.Mair’S version

This

version is translated by Mair brother,Denis.C

and

Victor H.Malt,which was

published by Chinese publishing gaint the name

Beijing

Foreign Language Press in 1989 with

Strange死勰from
makes



Make—do

Studio.The

collection contains

51 pieces of

stories and

great efforts to bring the classic Chinese tales of mystery

and

supernatural

to western

readers。Both of the brothers had been living in China for

many

years before settling down in the US。.Their version of Liaozhai is unique not

only for its faithfulness to the original but also for its largest which reflects the spirit of the

coherence in English

original

work while carrying the implication of the

original in idiomatic English,full of literary value and artistic effect.

A Study

on

一~

Translator’S Subjectivity in English Versions ofLiaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of George Steiner’‘Hermeneutic Motion


Chapter IV Steiner’S

Fourfold

Hermeneutic

Motion Theory

Embodied in Liaozhaizhiyi A Case Study:Comparative Analysis of Liaozhaizhiyi
on

Three English Versions

4。1

The骶anslator’s Initiative曩隧sl

Trust here according to

Steiner强e粕s

that the translator believes that the target

work is useful and irradiative for the target—language readers。And
deep belief,translator gets the driving force

just because

of that

and

has the great energy to face the most for the original work

complex work in the world-一translation.Love support to acquired

and enthusiasm

complete the tough task.Translator’S trust
knowledge of the

in my opinion

comes

from the

culture,consuetude,history,and language
or

in

the

source-language domain.Translator him language and culture.Then he
levels:one is the
usage of the
or

herself must be

an

expert at both-side

she

can

gain the trust of the

work.The trust

has two

trust of the value of the original

work the other is the

trust of the

translated

work.As to the main topic of this thesis,the three

translators of

Liaozhaizhiyi all share the indispensable

and

the initiative trust at the beginning of all involves in the first step of

translating.Furthermore,translators’subjectivity
translation
process.

4。1.1 The translator's cultural and linguistic competence.

Trust needs foundation which is comprised by

translator’S

lingual and cultural

knowledge

which serving

as

the

components

of the

translator’S

subjectivity..As

mentioned in first chapter,those three translators all well—educated and master both
Chinese

and English.

A Study Oil Translator's

Subjectivi每运En薛sh Versions

of Liaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of George Steiner’S Herrr;.eneutic Motion

Herbert Giles was



British linguist and professor of Chinese in the University of


Cambridge,and had lived in China for about 30 years。As
to

consul in China,he used

mix with many knowledgeable nobles and men of letters,and studied Chinese hard

and took part in

many cross—cultural activities.He

was quite familiar with Chinese

language and culture,including history,philosophy,ethics,religion,art and especially
literature.He wrote

many books introducing Chinese

culture to English readers,

including Chinese sketches,The Civilization of China,China and the Chinese,
Historic China,and other sketches。He also

translated many

Chinese classics into

English.For example,Liaozhaizhiyi,XJ Yuan lm Ji,Fu Guo Ji and San Zi Jing.His

translation Was

regarded by



famous

British critic Lytton Strachey

to

be“髓e

best

that this generation has known'’。Our Scholar Lu Shuxiang praised him

as“一代汉学

权威,卓越的翻译大师”.
Giles proclaimed Liaozhaizhiyi to be"universally accepted in China
as

the best

and

most

perfect

model。’’He intended it“as


all

addition tO

our

knowledge of the

folk-lore of China,and as

guide to the

manners,customs,and
call

social life of that vast

Empire’'(1908:5)。From

this statement we

see

that Giles’belief in the value and
on

usage of his translation-Liaozhaizhiyi.Before translating,he did much research the author,the works of Pu Songling,trying his utmost to

collect sufficient reference


materials for further and accurate understanding of the original. Yang Xianyi is


great

Chinese scholar and

translator.He Was

deeply

rooted

in

Chinese culture since very early influenced by

years.When he
he

went abroad to study,he was also

western culture.Certainly


has good command of Chinese and

English.He has been the editor of written and introduced wife and also helpful

magazine named Chinese Literature,and has

many articles

about Chinese literature to the outside world.His Yang

assistant Gladys

Was



British Chinese and when she lived

in China,she Was encircled by Chinese cultural atmosphere。This couple cooperated
to

translate many classical literary works.Besides their well—known A Dream
are

of

Red
Liao

Mansions,there
Zhai. Yang

many other literary works,including

Selected是勉from

believes

that

Chinese

people

should
2S

understand

foreign culture,and

A Study


on

Translator's

Subjectivity妇English

Versions ofLiaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of Steiner’S Hermeneutic Motion George




foreigners should also know Chinese culture.This belief is inevitably the reasonable

result of his comparative study of Chinese and western culture,and it is also his goal in translation,that means,whether he is translating Chinese into English
or

vice-versa,



always

manages

to

explain

the

cultural connotation to the target readers。In
out

Selected Tales from Liao Zhai,he carries

his belief which is full of his subjectivity.

Victor.H.M址is



professor of Department of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies

in the University of Pennsylvania.He has been the editor of Sino-platonic papers

and

has published many articles

on

Chinese culture and literature.In 1987 and 1989,he

published two articles entitled
Indian Influence
on

respectively雀partial

Bibliography for the study of
of Tang

Chinese popular

literature’’and"The contribution
to

and

Hve Dynasties Transformation Texts

Later Chinese Popular

Literature’,'which


showed his intimate knowledge of Chinese culture。Denis。C is also
on

famous scholar

Chinese language.He has literary works
as

composed many articles
on

about China.He also

translated English,

some

well as books

eastern

politics

and philosophy into
one.

of which Strange

Tales#om Make-Do Studio

is the most famous

The two people are very serious

and extremely

responsible in

translating

such



masterpiece.They tried

their utmost to get thorough

understanding

of the original

and

employed effective means to express it in

English。They took

much trouble to look up

in dictionaries and reference books in dealing with some points about which they are
not sure.

Tlle purpose of citing so many writings and translations by those translators is prove the truth that it is
Chinese
no

to

exaggeration

to say

they all have

good command
in

of the the

and Chinese

culture.They越l contribute

themselves

bridging

communication of
not only usher

two

different cultures。Their knowledge and culture background
to

them into the beauty of the work but also help them the target—work.No matter
she masters Chinese


establish the
or a

initiative as long have the

trust to

native speaker of Chinese
or

foreigner,

as

he

or

and Chinese culture,he

she will naturally

trust

in the value and usage of Pu SongIing’s Liaozhaizhiyi and then will
to English*speaking

have the eager to introduce and share this masterpiece

people.
texts

A man with such talent and intelligence like them will surely choose the original
2鑫

AStudy

on

Translator's Subjectivity in English Versions ofLiaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of George Steiner’S Hermeneutic Motion


which he

or

she trusts

can

fulfill his

or

her purpose,namely he

or

she believes that the

text is meaningful

and significant.

4.1.2

Manifestation

in the choice of original text

Based

on

the

theories

discusses

above,those

three

translators

translated

Liaozhaizhiyi
Firstly,Pu

not for a reason of arbitrariness but congenially.

Songling

is reputed as

one

of the best three short novelists in the world,

with the other two Henri Rene Albert Guy de Maupassant and Anton Pavlovitch
Chekhov.And his masterpiece Liaozhaizhiyi is praised as fiction in
one

of the best Chinese and

classical Chinese

language

with its

touching images,profound

penetrating social

conflicts

and mysterious yet fascinating plots.So Liaozhaizhiyi is spread among many
or

really worthy to be read who has


and be

countries.But language

every

translator many

good command of Chinese and his

her mother

will have

literary works to choose

and those be

chosen must

be

at

least their preference.

Herbert Giles compared Liaozhaizhiyi to the Arabian Nights“……whose work has

been

for the

best

part of two centuries

as

familiar throughout the length and breadth of
communities.’’

China as are the tales of

the“Arabian

Nights”in all English-speaking
can

(Giles,1968:Introduction:11)From
Liaozhaizhiyi is very influential there iS certain artistic value in

his comment we

know that he thinks that

among

Chinese people.In other words,he believes

it.And

he also holds such belief that the

translational

version c鑫毅be popular among target-readers.

“……but I can

safely affirm that I

never once

detected

the Liao Chai in the

han蠡O£

an i11.educated

mall。In the same connection,Mr.Mayers observed that“fairytales

told in the style of the

Anatomy

of Melancholy would scarcely be



popular book in

Great Britain”but except in some particular points of works could

contact,the

styles of these

two

scarcely claim

even

the most

distant
all

of

relationships”(ibid:22).Giles
our

wants

to use

this chance of translation‘‘As


addition to

knowledge of the

folk—lore of

China,and as

guide to the

manners,customs,and

social life of that vast

Empire’’(ibid:23)


A Study on Translator’S Subjectivity in English Versions ofLiaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of George Steiner’S.Hermeneutic Motion But Liaozhaizhiyi is divided into eight volumes including all together 491 ancient Chinese weird short stories for this big sum Giles must choose some representational
ones

to

translate。In


the

introduction,the

author

announced

his

standard


of

selection.”in complete

similar manner,I

too had originally

determined to publish volumes;but
on

full


and

translation of

the whole

of

these sixteen

closer
on

acquaintance

many of the stories turned out to be quite unsuitable for the age
coarseness

which we live,forcibly recalling the

of

our

writers of fiction in the
or

eighteenth sli醢tly

century.Others,again,were utterly pointless

mere repetitions in



altered form.From the whole,I therefore selected

one

hundred and six-four of

the best and most characteristic
One guiding principle in Chinese classics is to WOrld.

stories.。。。..’’0bid:lO)
Gladys Yang’S translation practice of the

Yang Xianyi and

introduce

the excellence of Chinese culture

and language

to the

4.2 The Translator’s Aggression

According

to Heidegger,all

the understanding,cognition and interpretation

are a

compacted,unavoidable

mode

of矗ttack.Steiner
all

uses

simile
scar

to let it more dearly:

UThe simile is that of the open-cast mine left

empty

in the landscape”.From

this diction,the incursive and extractive activity-the second step of

translation process
are a

from Steiner brings

US



violent image.All the already—existed literary works

prefect and self-governed world which must be interrupted and broken to reveal the inner viscera.But this invasion is it which maybe"lead
a SO

opinionated that there are also some bad things in Steiner states this aftermath is genuine

bad

translation.But as

borderline

cases for translator's

initiative trust.The
and

springhead of

aggression is about

translator’S own pre—knowledge
plays crucial role in this period。

pre*cultural

atmosphere.Translator's

subjectivity

4.2.1 Aggression out of the cultural consciousness

A Study Oil Translator’S Subjectivity in English Versions ofLiaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective of George Steiner’S Hermeneutic Motio.n




Everyone lives in



specific cultural environment and will be imprinted the mark of

culture.1 think that in the broad narrow

sense,culture and

refers to the ethnic level and in the learning environment.The literary

sense,culture
with


contains

the living

translator

special identity not only tries his or her best to

understand cultures.In

the this

original work but also to overcome cultural barriers lies across two

time,translator

must put personal

subjectivity

to good

use.

These

three

translators when

they translated Liaozhaizhiyi they must face many obstacles and find their own way to let the target text

understanding and translational

dear and readable。Here we have some examples to make the point clearly.GT is short for Giles’version,YT is short for Yang Xianyi short for Denis

and his wife’S version

and DT is

C.and

Victor H.Mair’S version.

1十四岁,入郡庠,即知名。(《罗刹海市》)
GT:At fourteen years of age he graduated and make


name for himself.

Y叠At
quite


the

age of

fourteen

he

entered the prefectural school,where

he

was winning

name

for himself.


DT:He also made fourteen.

name for himself by being admitted to the prefectural academy at

郡庠refers

to the school which is built

by府;入郡庠means
meaning

begin to learn

in郡
and

庠.In

Giles

version,‘graduate’has the contrary

to“入”while

in Yang

Denis’versions they express not prefectural

only“入”but also the

basic

meaning the郡庠with

school

or

academy.

2下焉者,亦邀贵人宠,故褥鼎烹以养妻子。(《罗刹海市》>
GT:The third class in

looks

ale

employed in the palace of the king。Thus these

are

enabled out of their pay to provide for their wives and

families.
handsome
pensions for the

YT:while the third class have noble patrons and receive support of their families. DT:and the

somewhat handsome

call

support

their wives and children in style by

winning the favor of some nobleman.D

AStudy

Oil

Translator's Subjectivity in English Versions ofLiaozhaizhiyi under the Perspective文 George Steiner’S Hermeneutic Motion


“妻子"in

ancient Chinese means wife and children not the same meaning with the
to wife.But our family

modem Chinese just refers

model is that at least three

generation live together and the middle—aged mall support the whole family.Having this cultural

consciousness,“妻子"in
culture
ale SO

this sentence means the whole family.Yang in western

roots in Chinese

hc

uses

families.While

culture,to



mall only
wives and

wife and children

family members without his parents,SO Giles wives

uses

families

and

Denis

USeS

and children.

3君似征入,妾作荡妇,即置而不御,亦何得谓非琴瑟哉?(《罗刹海市》)
GT:You life,how
are

my Ulysses,l am your Penelope;though

not actually leading a married

can

it be said that we are not husband and wife.

YT:You are the wanderer

and I the and

loving wife at home;but wife.


even

though we cannot

be

together,we remain husband like


DT:YOu are

wayfarer,and I am
one can

wayfarer’s wife.But yet,though the lute

and

harp are left long unplayed,no

say they do not harmonize.

征人refers
wife of those

to

the

people who are required to go out for a battle

and荡妇refers to

people's.琴瑟ale two musical

instruments and always played together usually used to compare to the

to make a wonderful

SOund.In Chinese,琴瑟is

spouse relationship. Giles employs the strategy of adaptation here.Ulysses and his wife Penelope who is
so

faithful to her husband are characters in

Roman and

Greek mythology.Giles

translate lik

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