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2005年成人高考数学试题及答案下(高起点理工类)

时间:2012-06-15


Global Market, the Size
Solar electric energy demand has grown by an average 30% per annum over the past 20 years against a backdrop of rapidly declining costs and prices. This decline in cost has been driven by economies of manufacturing scale, manufacturing technology improvements, and the increasing efficiency of solar cells. In 2009, the photovoltaic solar industry generated $ 38.5 billion in revenues globally, which includes the sale of solar modules and associated equipment, and the installation of solar systems. Solarbuzz produces various forecast scenarios which, depending on the factors, see growth in the world PV market from $ 46.3 billion to $ 96.8 billion in 2014. PV installations grew to 7.3 GW in 2009, up 20% from the prior year. Expected to reach 8.4-13.1 GW in 2010, the various forecast scenarios predict demand rising to 15.4-37 GW in 2014, more than five times the size of the 2009 market. The worldwide on-grid segment grew by 20% in 2009, and the off-grid market grew 23% in 2009, faster than on-grid for the first time in 15 years but on a much smaller base.

Source: to Solarbuzz 2010 Marketbuzz

The Regional Market, Growth,
The largest on-grid market by far has been Germany, where demand has been stimulated by very attractive feed-in tariffs. This is followed by Japan, where grid-connected applications are also stimulated by market incentive programs.

Source: to Solarbuzz 2010 Marketbuzz

Driving Forces of Growth in the Country Markets is
Among industrialized countries, the German and Japanese governments have led the way in legislating high incentives to stimulate development of their domestic solar markets. The German feed-in tariff model has been increasingly used in countries around Europe, including Italy and France. As a result , the industry structure has evolved, leading to strong distributor and dealer networks with welltrained installers and good customer support capabilities. Government policy is designed to reduce CO 2 emissions via solar deployment and to create high-tech jobs through the development of a strong national solar industry. In the United States, utilities have played a stronger role in market development.

Overall, regional solar energy demand where the solar energy is connected to the electricity grid is driven by the following:
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Incentive programs led by national or state governments: Subsidies allow customers / investors to gain a financial return on the PV system by selling solar electricity at preferential rates. Enthusiasm of customers for green energy, especially solar Local electricity tariffs: High electricity rates encourage alternative sources of energy. Sunlight conditions: Solar electricity prices fall as sunlight levels increase. Marketing strategies by solar companies Delivery infrastructure, which is the number of local suppliers and qualified installers

In developing countries, markets have benefited from the steady decline in solar PV prices, but they have also been stimulated by continued multi-lateral and bi-lateral development aid. This has meant that solar has been an enabling technology for developmental programs for education, the clean water on, and healthcare. There is an increasing focus on micro-finance to improve the affordability of solar PV systems, which may be economical over their lifetime but have high initial costs. Such credit schemes have been effective at a small scale, but a culture of credit does not exist yet in many developing countries. Kenya is notable for its strong commercial (un-subsidized) market, where customers opt for low power (10-20W) entry-level modules.

内容简介:
在当今能源短缺的现状下,各国都加紧了发展光伏的步伐。 美国提出“太阳能先导计划”意在降低太阳能光 伏发电的成本,使其 2015 年达到商业化竞争的水平;日本也提出了在 2020 年达到 28GW 的光伏发电总量; 欧洲光伏协会提出了“setfor2020”规划,规划在 2020 年让光伏发电做到商业化竞争。 在发展低碳经济的大 背景下,各国政府对光伏发电的认可度逐渐提高。

政策;中国也不甘落后,2009 年相继提出了《太阳能光电建筑应用财政补助资金管理暂行办法》、金
太阳示范工程等鼓励光伏发电产业发展的政策;2010 年国务院颁布的《关于加快培育和发展战略性新兴 产业的决定》明确提出要“开拓多元化的太阳能光伏光热发电市场”;2011 年国务院制定的“十二五”规划纲

要再次明确了要重点发展包括太阳能热利用和光伏光热发电在内的新能源产业。 一系列的政策支持让中 国光伏发电发展之路更加宽广。

现状;[[[[与装机容量位于世界前茅的风电相比,我国光伏发电的发展仍处在起步阶段,发展水平远
落后于德国、西班牙、日本等发达国家,是我国新能源发电产业的“短板” 。 我国 2011 年新增太阳能发电 装机容量约 220 万千瓦,当年新增量位居世界第三。 截至 2011 年底,中国太阳能光伏发电累计装机量达 300 万千瓦,较 2010 年增长了三倍多。 尽管增幅明显,但其总体规模与其他可再生能源形式多达几千万 千瓦的规模相比,仍显微小。 ]]]]] 国家发改委 2011 年 8 月 1 日宣布新的太阳能光伏发电标杆上网电价,按项目核准期限分别定为每千瓦时 1.15 元(含税)和每千瓦时 1 元,以刺激太阳能光伏发电的普及。 该通知明确了全国光伏上网的基准电 价,在此基础上,地方政府可出台地方性的光伏上网电价补贴,补贴部分由地方政府负担。 随着国内光伏产业规模逐步扩大、技术逐步提升,光伏发电成本会逐步下降,未来国内光伏容量将大幅增 加。 中国已将新能源产业上升为国家战略产业,未来 10 年拟加大对包括太阳能在内的新能源产业投资, 以减少经济对石化能源依赖和降低碳排放。 未来五到十年中国光伏发电有望规模化发展。 中投顾问发布的《2012-2016 年中国太阳能光伏发电产业投资分析及前景预测报告》共九章。 首先介绍了 太阳能及太阳能光伏发电的原理、分类、部件构成等,接着分析了国内外光伏发电产业的现状。 随后, 报告对光伏发电产业做了区域发展分析、技术动向分析、关联产业分析、上市公司经营状况分析和投资分 析,最后预测了太阳能光伏发电产业的未来前景。 您若想对太阳能光伏发电产业有个系统的了解或者想 投资太阳能光伏发电 ,本

Summary:
In today's energy shortage situation, countries have stepped up the pace of development of PV. The United States the cost of solar pilot scheme intended to reduce the solar photovoltaic, so that the commercialization of the level of competition in 2015; Japan in 2020 to 28GW of total photovoltaic ; European Photovoltaic Association setfor2020 "planning, planning for photovoltaic power generation to do business competition in 2020. The backdrop of the low carbon economy, governments of photovoltaic power generation authorized gradually improved. China is not far behind, have proposed the use of fiscal subsidies for solar construction fund management Interim Measures "in 2009, Golden Sun demonstration project to encourage PV industry development policy; the State Council promulgated in 2010 to speed up the cultivation and development of strategic emerging industries of the decision "clearly to open up a wide range of solar PV solar thermal power market"; 2011 the State Council formulated the "12th Five-Year Plan is clear once again to focus on the development, including the use of solar thermal and

photovoltaic solar thermal power generation, including new energy industries. A series of policies to support the photovoltaic development path more wide. Compared with the installed capacity of wind power in the highest in the world, the development of China's photovoltaic power generation is still in its infancy, the level of development is far behind Germany, Spain, Japan and other developed countries, China's new energy power generation industry. "short board" . China's 2011 new solar power generation capacity of about 2.2 million kilowatts, the new ranks third in the world. As of the end of 2011, Chinese solar PV cumulative installed capacity of 3 million kilowatts, more than a threefold increase over 2010. Albeit obvious, but its overall size compared with other renewable forms of energy up to tens of millions of kilowatts of scale remained small. The National Development and Reform Commission announced on August 1, 2011 new solar photovoltaic benchmark price, the project approval period were set at 1.15 yuan per kilowatt-hour (including tax) and $ 1 per kilowatt-hour, in order to stimulate the solar photovoltaic the popularity of power generation. The circular clearly the basic price of the national PV On this basis, the local government can be the introduction of local PV electricity price subsidies, subsidized in part by the burden of local government. With the gradually expand the scale of the domestic photovoltaic industry, the technologies have been gradually improved, the cost of photovoltaic power generation will gradually decline, domestic PV capacity will increase significantly in the future. The new energy industry of China has increased national strategic industry, the next 10 years, intends to increase investment in new energy industries, including solar , to reduce economic dependence on oil and reduce carbon emissions. The next five to ten years, China's photovoltaic power generation is expected to scale development. 2012-2016 China Solar Photovoltaic Industry "issued by the Investment Advisor in Investment Analysis and Forecast Report total of nine chapters. First introduced the principle of solar energy and solar photovoltaic power generation, classification, component composition, and then analyze the current situation of the domestic and international PV industry. Subsequently, the report on the photovoltaic industry, regional development, technology trend analysis, related industries, operating conditions and investment analysis of listed companies, and finally to

predict the future prospects of the solar photovoltaic industry. If you wish to have a systems understanding of the solar photovoltaic industry or want to invest in solar photovoltaic power generation , the report is an indispensable tool for you. Investment Advisor in the business

光电:有望成为未来的“主导能源”

在近日由国家能源专家咨询委员会(简称能源专家委)召开的太阳能发电研讨会上, 数十名与会专家普遍认为,在全球低碳经济与新能源革命的大趋势下,光电最有可能成为 我国未来份额最大的主导能源。 “但就目前来看,我国太阳能发电产业尚在政策、技术以及市场等诸多方面存在发展的 障碍。 ”国家能源局综合司副司长、国家能源专家咨询委员会秘书长王思强说, “破除 发展的瓶颈,太阳能发电产业将获得最为光明的前景。 ”

从“光伏”到“光热”太阳能发电异军突起

太阳能发电包括光伏发电和光热发电两部分内容。

据专家们介绍,近年来,光伏发电

和光热发电在我国已受到前所未有的重视,太阳能发电正在成为我国可再生能源一支生力 军。 在谈及中国光伏发电产业的发展现状时,能源专家委特邀专家、中电科技集团公司第 48 研究所副所长王俊朝表示: “中国光伏产业目前已形成一条规模化的产业链。 ” 王俊朝举例说,比如,中国工业矽生产已居全球第一;高纯矽生产千吨级技术已基本掌 握;矽片加工生产规模已达世界级水平;电池及组件产能和产量均居世界首位;矽材料的 降价使得光伏发电成本大幅降低,中国光伏电站技术亦逐渐成熟。 分析国内光伏产业的发展趋势,王俊朝认为,一方面,随着我国光伏产业整体技术水平

的提升和光伏设备制造业的快速扩张,中国光伏发电开发企业的投资成本将大大降低;另 一方面,随着国际市场竞争加剧,外资光伏企业亦悄然进入我国市场,我国已成为全球最 大的光伏设备市场。 由此而言,我国即将迎来光伏发电产业的黄金时代。

“我国太阳能光热发电产业的发展也非常迅猛。 ”能源专家委特邀专家、国家 973 项目 专家组组长、中国科学院太阳能热利用与光伏系统重点实验室主任王志峰告诉记者。 据

王志峰介绍, “十五”期间,中国科学院电工研究所、工程热物理所等科研机构和皇明太 阳能集团公司、新疆新能源公司、南京春辉科技实业有限公司等企业,已开始了光热发电 技术的项目研究。 他说: “在此期间,我国科学家已经对碟式发电系统,塔式发电系

统以及槽式聚光单元进行了研究,掌握了一批太阳能热发电的核心技术,如高反射率高精 度反射镜、高精密度双轴跟踪控制系统、高热流密度下的传热、太阳能热电转换等。 ” 进入“十一五”以来,随着国家对可再生能源的高度重视,光热发电受到来自政府部门 的大力支持。 断加大。 王志峰告诉《经济参考报》记者,国家对光热发电技术研发的投资力度不

从 2006 到 2010 年,仅科技部投入光伏发电的经费就超过 4750 万,光伏发电

在许多重点技术领域取得突破性进展。 据介绍,我国科学家目前已经掌握了一批太阳能热发电的关键技术。 比如,对抗风载

高精度定日镜技术、高温塔式吸热器技术、高温储热技术、电站控制技术、塔式发电系统 设计和集成技术、槽式真空管制造工艺和槽式聚光器集成技术等等。 “就光热发电而言,我国目前已形成从基本材料、主机设备和系统设计集成的产业链。 ” 王志峰自豪地说,自 2007 年起至今,我国已连续举办三年的“太阳能热发电技术三亚国际 论坛” ,该论坛已成为国际上最为重要的太阳能热发电的会议之一。 热发电公司,国际能源署与美国能源部等都开始派代表出席该会议。 世界三大太阳能

拨“云”方能见“日”太阳能发电尚面临诸多挑战

“作为世界太阳能资源大国,我国的太阳能发电无疑将成为最引人注目的阳光产业。 ” 能源专家委专家、中国科学院电工研究所副所长许洪华说, “然而,我们必须认识到,如 同有'阳光'就有'影子'一样,中国太阳能产业在发展中还面临许多挑战。 ”

谈及我国太阳能发电产业发展中存在的问题,许洪华举例说:比如,缺乏明确的光伏 和光热产业发展规划;尚未建立行业公共研究与测试认证平台;太阳能电池全产业链、光 伏发电系统成套装备和应用产品的技术水平有待提高和完善;光伏发电的审批程序和电价 核准程序不明确,在幷网以及规模化推广方面有很大的阻力;技术标准和管理规程不完善, 尤其是针对电力部门所关心的安全问题、电能质量和管理问题等方面,需要尽快出台相应 的技术标准和管理规范;还有独立光伏电站的后期维护管理问题、专业技术人才队伍建设 滞后问题等等。 “尽管我国在太阳能发电技术的诸多领域取得了一些新的进展,但自主创新能力不强, 仍然是制约产业快速发展的最大瓶颈。 ”许洪华说, “我们的科研投入及技术积累不足, 尚未建立从基础研究、关键技术、装备到产业化的可持续发展的产业支撑体系。我国太阳 能发电的自主创新能力和持续发展能力,与发达国家相比尚存在较大差距。 ” 针对众多媒体所披露的中国多晶矽材料产能过剩的问题,许洪华研究员提出了自己独特 的见解。 他认为,我国目前多晶矽的产量还不能满足国内产业链的需求,实际在建和达 他告诉《经济参考报》记者: “生产成本高,产品性能差,才

到的产能不能说过剩。

是制约太阳能光伏产业发展的最大障碍。产业扩张使上涨原材料在竞争中降价,同时全面 掌握先进的技术,产品性能达到国际同等水平,这样才可以大大降低成本,促进太阳能产 业的快速发展。 ” 太阳能电池的生产能耗和污染问题,被业内外认为是产业发展进程中一个值得重视的问 题。 许洪华说,晶矽电池生产过程当中,就单 一生产企业来说,单位能耗的确比较高, 晶体矽太阳电池从沙子到系统生产总能耗大约 2.65 度电,

但如果算总账却幷非如此。

即使每年生产幷安装 10GW 光伏系统,总能耗 265 亿千瓦时,仅占 2007 年全国总发电量的 0.8% ,电解铝总耗电 5%和钢铁占到 14% ,总能耗是不高的。 随着多晶矽和太阳能电池

的技术进步,这个指标会进一步下降,光伏发电是一个高耗能产业,从单一厂来说,是一 个高耗能厂,从产业来说,不应该说是高耗能的产业。 “在光伏发电产业中,冶金矽生产造成的环境影响幷不大;而多晶矽生产过程中虽然有

大量的废液和废气产生,主要废液是四氯化矽和三氯氢矽等,主要的废气是氯化氢。 ”许 洪华告诉《经济参考报》,措施; “对这些废物,无论是回收利用还是无公害处理都不 存在技术问题,还可以回收作为其他化学工业的原料。从已经开工生产的多晶矽厂看,通 过尾气回收、无公害处理、物料循环使用和综合利用,完全可以做到零排放和清洁生产。 ”

从“替代”到“主导”中国光电还有很长的路要走

太阳能的重要地位;(

“太阳能发电在中国的战略地位正在变得愈加重要。 ”

许洪华认为,太阳能发电从目前的补充和替代能源,将来会逐步过渡成为主要能源和主导 能源。 他说: “太阳能是解决我国能源问题的有效方案。 ”

据许洪华预计,太阳能发电在未来特别是 2030 年之后将会大规模应用;到 2050 年后, 在所有发电形式中太阳能最可能成为份额最大的主导能源。 能源专家委特邀专家、中山大学太阳能系统研究所沉辉博士表示,从科学发展观、能量 回收期等角度来看,光伏发电是未来最具发展前途的太阳能发电技术。 “根据我国实际情况,在三大可再生能源技术中,相对风能、生物质能,太阳能最具发 展潜力,其中光伏发电发展无可限量。 ”沉辉说, “光伏可以拉动机器制造业、汽车工 业、建筑行业,是未来经济的最大增长点。 ” 沉辉认为,我国光伏产业发展是在整个工业中发展最具有竞争力的, 5-6 年的时间就实 现跨越性发展,让世界震惊,政府应该大力支持。 )

中国最有潜力的太阳能发电市场在哪里?
方面考虑,最有潜力的光伏发电是建设“荒漠电站” 。

许洪华认为,从资源和成本等 他说: “一从资源上讲,西部

荒漠地区是我国太阳能资源最丰富的地区;二从土地成本上讲,荒漠电站最为经济;三从 市场讲,在西部地区建设几兆瓦到十兆瓦的荒漠电站,发出来的电基本上可以就地消耗。 ” 与会专家认为,太阳能发电要成为“主导能源” ,还有很长的路要走。未来的发展规划

首先,要尽快公布新能源振兴规划;其次,要尽早出台太阳能光伏和光热电价政策。 三,要加大科研投入,建立具有自主知识产权的、可持续发展的太阳能发电产业体系。



“尽管我国光伏和光热发电产业发展迅猛,但目前整体尚处幼苗期。 ”王俊朝研究员说, 中国太阳能产业是一个充满光明的产业,需要在政府的支持和社会各界的呵护中做大做强, 做成中国未来可再生能源的主力军。

Solar: is expected to become the future dominant energy

Solar power seminar held recently by the National Energy Expert Advisory Committee (referred to as the Energy Committee of Experts), dozens of participating experts generally agreed that the next major trend in the global low carbon economy and new energy revolution, the photoelectric most likely to be China's future share of the leading energy. "But now, many aspects of the solar power industry in China is still the policy, technology and market obstacles to development." Said Wang Siqiang, deputy director of the National Energy Board, the Secretary-General of the National Energy Expert Advisory Committee, to get rid of the development bottleneck, the solar power industry will get the most bright future. "

To the sudden emergence of the "solar thermal" solar power from PV

Solar power generation, including photovoltaic and solar thermal power generation in two parts. According to experts, in recent years, photovoltaic

and solar thermal power generation in China has been unprecedented attention,

solar power is becoming China's renewable energy a vital force. Turning to the Chinese photovoltaic industry development, the invited experts of the Energy Committee of Experts, the China Electronics Technology Group Corporation No. 48 Research Institute, deputy director Wang Jun DPRK, said: "The PV industry in China has formed a large-scale industrial chain." Bob North Korea for example, for example, China's industrial silicon production ranked first in the world; has basically mastered the high-purity silicon production kiloton; silicon processing production scale has reached world-class level; cell and module production capacity and output rank the first in the world ; silicon material of the lower prices make the cost of photovoltaic power generation significantly reduce China's photovoltaic power plant technology is mature. Analysis of the domestic photovoltaic industry development trends, Bob toward the one hand, with the rapid expansion of the overall technology level of China's PV industry and PV equipment manufacturing, the cost of photovoltaic power generation development business investment will be greatly reduced; the one hand, as the international market competition, foreign photovoltaic companies quietly enter the China market, China has become the world's largest photovoltaic equipment market. Thus, China is about to usher in the golden

age of the photovoltaic industry. Solar thermal power industry is also very rapid. "Invited experts of the Energy Committee of Experts, the National 973 project team leader, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the use of solar thermal and photovoltaic systems Laboratory Director Wang Zhifeng told reporters. According to Wang Zhifeng,

the Tenth Five-Year "period, the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Electrical Engineering, Engineering Thermophysics, other research institutions

and Huang Ming Solar Energy Corporation, Xinjiang New Energy Company, Nanjing Chunhui Science and Technology Industrial Co., Ltd., enterprises, has begun a solar thermal power generation technology research projects. He said: "During

this time, our scientists have been on the disc-type power generation system, tower, power generation systems and parabolic trough unit studies, mastered the core technology of the number of solar thermal power generation, such as the precision of the high reflectivity mirror high-precision dual-axis tracking control systems, heat transfer under high heat flux, solar thermal conversion. " Into the "11th Five-Year", along with the state attaches great importance to renewable energy, solar thermal power by the strong support from government departments. Zhifeng told the Economic Information Daily "reporters, national

light thermal power generation technology research and development investment has intensified. From 2006 to 2010, only the Ministry of Science and

Technology investment in photovoltaic funding for more than 47.5 million, a breakthrough in photovoltaic power generation in many key technology areas. According to reports, Chinese scientists have mastered the key technology of the number of solar thermal power generation. For example, against the wind

load of high-precision heliostat technology, high temperature tower heat sink technology, high-temperature thermal storage technology, power plant control technology, tower power system design and integration technology, the slotted tube manufacturing process and the trough concentrator integration technology and so on. "For solar thermal power generation, China has been the formation of integrated industrial chain from basic material, the host device and system design." Zhifeng proud to say that since 2007 China has held for three years,

"solar thermal power technology Sanya International Forum "The Forum has become one of the most important international meeting of solar thermal power generation. World's top three solar thermal power company, the International

Energy Agency and U.S. Department of Energy and so began to send representatives to attend the meeting.

Dial "cloud" can only see "solar power is still facing many challenges

"As the world's solar energy resources, China's solar power generation will undoubtedly become the most eye-catching sun industry energy experts appointed experts, the deputy director of the Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, said Xu Honghua," However, we must recognize that, as the 'sunshine 'there' shadow ', the Chinese solar energy industry also faces many challenges in the development. " Talk about the problems in the development of China's solar power industry, Xu Honghua example: for example, the lack of a clear photovoltaic and solar thermal industry development planning; not yet established the industry, public research and testing and certification platform; the whole industry chain of the solar cell, photovoltaic power generation system sets technical level of equipment and applications needs to be improved and perfect; photovoltaic approval procedures and tariff approval process is not clear, a lot of resistance in the Bing network as well as large-scale promotion; imperfections of technical standards and management procedures, especially security concerns in the electricity sector, power quality and management issues, as soon as possible, the appropriate technical standards and management practices; the late stand-alone PV power plant maintenance and management issues, professional and technical personnel construction lag.

"Despite our many areas of solar power technology has made new progress, but the capacity for independent innovation is still the biggest bottleneck constraints of rapid industrial development." Said Xu Honghua, "Our investment in research and technology accumulation has not been established from basic research, industrial support system for sustainable development of key technologies and equipment to the industrialization of China's solar power generation capability of independent innovation and sustainable development capability, compared with developed countries, there are still a wide gap. " Chinese polysilicon material for many of the media disclosed overcapacity problem, Xu Honghua researcher put forward their own unique perspective. believes that China's polysilicon production can not meet the needs of the domestic industry chain, the actual production achieved in the build and can not say that the surplus. He told the Economic Information Daily "reporters:" He

The high production costs, poor product performance is the biggest obstacle to restrict the development of solar photovoltaic industry. Industrial expansion so that the rise in raw material price cuts in the competition, along with full master advanced technology, product performance to to the same level, so that it can greatly reduce costs, and promote the rapid development of the solar energy industry. " Solar cell production and energy consumption and pollution problems inside and outside the industry is an important problem in the industrial development process. Xu Honghua, crystalline silicon cell manufacturing process, a single

production enterprises, the unit energy consumption is indeed relatively high, but if the reckoning agree to be bound so. Production of crystalline silicon

solar cells from sand to the system total energy consumption of about 2.65 kWh annual production of Bing install 10GW PV systems, the total energy consumption

of 26.5 billion kwh, accounting for only 0.8 percent of the country's total generating capacity in 2007, the total aluminum power consumption 5 percent, and steel accounted for 14% of total energy consumption is not high. With the

technological advances of the polysilicon and solar cells, this indicator will decline further, photovoltaic power generation is a high energy-consuming industries, from a single plant, is a high energy plant, industry, should not be said to be high consumption can industry. In the photovoltaic industry, the environmental impact of metallurgical silicon production Bing little; polysilicon production process, although there are a lot of waste and emission generation, mainly waste of silicon tetrachloride and trichlorosilane, the main the exhaust gas is hydrogen chloride. Xu Honghua told the Economic Information Daily, "these wastes, whether it is recycling or pollution-free treatment does not exist in the technical problems can be recycled as raw materials of chemical industry has started production of polysilicon plant look through the exhaust gas recycling, pollution-free treatment, material recycling and comprehensive utilization, it is completely possible to zero emissions and cleaner production. "

From the "alternative" to the "dominant" photoelectric there is still a long way to go

"The strategic position of the solar power generation in China is becoming increasingly important." Xu Honghua solar power from the current complementary and alternative energy will be a gradual transition to become a major energy and the dominant energy. He said: "Solar energy is an effective solution to

solve our energy problems." Xu Honghua is expected that solar power in the future, especially after 2030

will be a large-scale application; 2050, in all forms of electricity generation, solar is most likely to become the largest share of the dominant energy. Dr. Shen-hui, invited experts of the Energy Committee of Experts, Sun Yat-sen Institute for Solar Energy Systems, photovoltaic power generation is the most promising in the future of solar power technology from the point of view of scientific development concept, the energy payback period. "According to China's actual situation in the three renewable energy technologies, the relative wind, biomass, solar energy the most potential for development, including photovoltaic power generation potential is enormous." Shen-hui said, "PV can pull the machine-building industry, automobile industry, construction industry, the future economic growth point. " Shen-hui, the development of China's PV industry is the most competitive in the industry as a whole, and 5-6 years to achieve leapfrog development, and to astound the world, the Government should vigorously support. Where is the most potential of solar power market? Xu Honghua think in terms

of resources and cost considerations, the greatest potential for photovoltaic power generation is the construction of desert power plants. He said: "from a

resource perspective, the western desert region is the richest areas of China's solar energy resources; two from the land cost in terms of desert power plants the most economical; three stresses from the market, the construction of the western region of a few megawatts to Shizhao desert-watt power station, the generated power can basically place consumption. The experts believe that solar power to become the dominant energy ", there is still a long way to go. First of all, to expeditiously announce new energy

promotion plan; Secondly, the need for early introduction of solar photovoltaic and solar thermal electricity policy. Third, to increase research investment,

the establishment of the independent intellectual property rights, sustainable development of the solar power industry system. "Although China's photovoltaic and solar thermal power industry is developing rapidly, but the overall is still in its seedling stage." Bob toward the researchers said, the Chinese solar energy industry is one filled with light industry, bigger and stronger government support and community care , made the main force of the future of renewable energy.

Source:

为何需要太阳能;太阳能是目前最不至于匮乏的永久性能源,而且相较于石油、 天然气、煤矿等 资源所产生的污染也较小 Solar energy is the most Buzhi Yu lack permanent energy, and compared to oil, gas, coal, etc. Resources, pollution is also smaller 太阳能应用-发电 太阳能的优点,是可以在地球的所有地方得到。 现代的太阳能系统,在每 天日照时间相当短的国家,也可以经济有效地提供大量电能。 太阳能的科技,应用甚广。 例如太阳能的计算机、手表,在市面上很普遍。 另外,利用太阳能来驱动的热水器和太阳屋,在外国亦可见到不少。 而太 阳能的交通工具,在一些科技较先进的国家亦有研究发展,例如美国、日 本。 这些交通工具包括飞机、汽车。 现今人类最关注的能源问题,太阳 能发电厂亦能够帮助去解决。 (注六) 太阳能的应用,在节约燃料和改善群体生活等方面都有成效,利用太阳能 烘干粮食和农副产品,是人类在长期生产实践中摸索出来的经验,而且目 前进一步采用太阳能粮食烘干机;另外有太阳能热水器、塑料大棚及太阳 能温室也都有很大的发展,值得一提的是太阳灶多数为抛物面偏轴聚光式 的,适用于蒸、煮、炒等各种烹调方式。 目前太阳能发电站有两种系统, 中央接受式的塔式电站和分布式电站。 太阳能为可再生能源,为目前新能 源开发的重要方面,更可以进一步研究发展,利用太阳能、风能、沼气、 水电和地热能等各种能源互补,也是一个有发展前途的技术

advantages of solar energy in all the places of the earth.

Modern

solar energy systems in each Days of sunshine a relatively short time, you can also costeffective to provide a lot of power. Solar energy technology, the application is very wide. Such as solar calculators and watches, is very common in the market. In addition, water heaters and solar homes use solar energy to drive in a foreign country can see that a lot. But too Positive energy transport, and also in some of the more advanced technology research and development, such as the United States, Japan This. These modes of transport including airplanes, automobiles. Today humans are most concerned about energy issues, the sun Power plants also can help to solve. (Note 6) Application of solar energy has the effectiveness of the use of solar energy, save fuel and improve group life Dry food and agricultural products, explore the human long-term production practice experience and objective Further use of solar grain dryer; addition, solar water heaters, plastic greenhouses and sun Able to greenhouse also has great development, it is worth mentioning is the axis concentrating solar cooker, most of the parabolic , Suitable for steaming, boiling, frying and other various ways of cooking. Solar power stations, there are two systems, Central to accept the type of tower power plants and distributed power plants. Solar renewable energy, new energy for the present An important aspect of the source development can be further research and development, the use of solar, wind, biogas, Hydropower and geothermal energy and other energy complement each other, is a promising technology. (Note 7) 太阳能的优点;
1.普遍性,太阳光照射的面积散布在地球大部分角落,仅差入射角丌同而造成的 光能有异,但至少丌会被少数国家或地区垄断,造成无谓的能源危机。 2.永久性,太阳的能量极其庞大,科学家计算出至少有六百万年的期限,对于人 类而言,这样的时间可谓是无限。

3.无污染性,现今使用最多的矿物能源,其滋生的问题丌外是废物的处理,物体 丌灭,能源耗竭越多,产生污染也相对增加,太阳能则无危险性及污染性。 在人 类不自然和平共处的原则下,使用太阳能最丌伤和气,且若设备使用得当,装置 成后所需费用极少,而每年至少 可生十的十七次方千瓦的电力。 (注十三) B、 太阳能使用的缺点: 1.稳定性差,受日夜季候的影响,太阳能丌断地生变化。 2.装置成本过高,吸收太阳能的受光面积须达一定规模方有效果,因此相对地成 本提高。 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Page 5 -太阳能科技的应用及未来的发展5/8 3.有人针对太阳能的污染问题提出「目视污染」,意即庞大的太阳能收集器造成 视觉上的污染,有此一说。 综观太阳能利用的优缺之处,发现太阳能仍是非常 可取的,目视污染是很主观的,又有谁能担保庞大的收集器丌会成为壮观的景 色,而成本问题也丌能短视近利的,花下去的金钱、空间,是可以在时间上换回 的,想想当几年之后,所有非再生的能源都消耗殆尽了,这时的太阳能将是无比 珍贵的,至于稳定性差的问题,这是谁都无法改变的事实,正如农人们看老天的 脸色过活,人不大自然之间的关系丌正如此,万物生灭自有他道理,这也是人类 改变丌了的,所以,太阳能的利用是势在必行的。

(1)stability, the area of sunlight scattered in most of the corners of the Earth, just under the angle of incidence caused by The light is different, but at least will not be the monopoly of a few countries or regions, resulting in unnecessary energy crisis.

(2) permanent, solar energy is enormous, the scientists calculated that at least 600 million years period for people Class, this time can be described as infinite. (3) non-polluting, today the most used fossil energy, its breeding is nothing more than waste disposal, the object Immortal, energy depletion of the more polluting but also the relative increase in solar was no danger and pollution. In human Class the principle of peaceful coexistence with nature, the use of solar energy the most is not amicable, and if the equipment is used properly, the device Into the cost of rarely, at least annually born the seventh of ten square kilowatts of electricity. (Note 13) B, the use of solar energy Disadvantages: Poor stability, subject to the influence of day and night, seasons, solar life changing. (2) The installation cost is too high, the area of light absorption of solar energy to be up to a certain size side effects and therefore into relatively This to improve. PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Page 5 - The application of solar technology and the future development 5/8 Some pollution problems for solar "visual pollution", which means that a huge solar collector caused Visual pollution, has been claimed. Looking at the advantages and disadvantages of solar energy utilization, the solar still is a very Desirable, visual pollution is very subjective, and who can guarantee a large collector will not become a spectacular King Color, the cost problem can not be short-sightedness of the spend down the money, space, and can exchange time , Think about when a few years later, all non-renewable energy sources are exhausted, when the solar is extremely Precious, poor stability, which no one can change the fact that, as the agricultural people see God Live on his face, so wrong relationship between man and nature, all things birth and death of his own reason, which is the human

Can not be changed, so the use of solar energy is imperative.

请立太阳能工程图 太阳能利用

太阳能

太阳能利用示意图

太阳能路灯

太阳能发电系统

美国加州南部的太阳能热电厂

太阳能监控安装效果图


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