Short Conversations 11. W: There were more than a hundred people at Kate's birthday party. How come she's got so many friends? M: It's really no surprise. You know she was popular even when she was a child Q: What does the man imply about Kate? 12. M: They say there'll be a snow-storm tonight, and the cold weather will last quite a few days. W: Oh! We're so lucky, we'll be getting away for a while, and having a holiday in Florida. But let's call right now to confirm our flight. Q: What do we learn about the two speakers? 13. W: Tony was awarded a medal for rescuing several families from the forest fire. M: I really admire his courage. Q: What do we learn about Tony from the conversation? 14. M: My washing machine is more than fifteen years old and it has worked just fine until last night. W: You’ll never be able to get parts for it, even from Japan. So it might be time to invest a more recent model. Q: What does the woman suggest the man do? 15. W: I heard about your promotion, you must be thrilled. M: Not really, the new office is huge, but the word load has doubled. Q: What do we learn about the man from the conversation? 16. W: I can’t decide what to do about the party tomorrow. M: You don’t have to go if you don’t want to, but I’ll be glad to give you a ride if you do. Q: What do we learn from the conversation? 17. M: Now if you have any questions about the contract. I’ll be happy to answer them. W: Nothing comes to mind right now, but I’d like to go over all the articles of the contract once more before signing it. Q: What are the speakers doing right now? 18. M: We are out of paper for the printer. Can you please order some? W: I completed the order form online yesterday and it will be here by noon. I’ll let you know when it comes in. Q: What did the woman do? Conversation One Woman: Hello, Parkson college. May I help you? Man: Yes. I’m looking for information on courses in computer programming. I would need it for the fall semester. W: Do you want a day or evening course? M: Well, it would have to be an evening course since I work during the day. W: Aha. Have you taken any courses in data processing? M: No. W: Oh. Well, data processing is a course you have to take before you can take computer programming. M: Oh, I see. Well, when is it given? I hope it’s not on Thursdays. W: Well, there’s a class that meets on Monday evenings at seven.

M: Just once a week? W: Yes. But that’s all most three hours from seven to nine forty-five. M: Oh. Well, that’s all right. I could manage that. How many weeks does the course last? W: Mmmm, let me see. Twelve weeks. You start the first week in September, and finish, oh, Just before Christmas. December 21st. M: And how much is the course? W: That’s three hundred dollars including the necessary computer time. M: Aha. Okay. Ah, where do I go to register? W: Registration is on the second and third of September, between 6 and 9 in Frost Hall. M: Is that the round building behind the parking lot? W: Yes. That’s the one. M: Oh, I know how to get there. Is there anything that I should bring with me? W: No, just your check book. M: Well, thank you very much. W: You are very welcome. Bye! M: Bye! 19. Why does the man choose to take an evening course? 20. What does the man have to do before taking the course of computer programming? 21. What do we learn about the schedule of the evening course? 22. What does the man want to know at the end of the conversation? Conversation Two W: So, why exactly does your job have a reputation for being stressful? M: Stress is generally driven by the feeling of being out of control of a situation, and the feeling of a situation controlling you. Trading in financial markets combines both. W: How do you relax in the evening? M: I very rarely do anything work related. So it’s easy to escape the markets. I generally go to the gym or go for a run, especially If I’ve had a bad day. I always cook a meal rather than have a takeaway. To do something my brain would regard as creative. W: Do you think what you do to relax is an effective way to beat stress? M: I don’t think there’s a specific rule about how to beat stress. I generally find that what I do is effective for me. W: Would you consider changing your job because of the high stress factor? M: I have considered leaving my job due to stress related factors. However, I do think that an element of stress is a good thing, and if used the right way, can actually be a positive thing. W: What do you enjoy about the stressful aspects of your job? M: Having said all that, I do actually enjoy an element of uncertainty. I enjoy a mental challenge. Trading generates a wide range of emotions second by second. How you deal with and manage those emotions dictates short, medium and long term trading performance and success 23. What is the man’s job? 24. Why does the man prefer to cook a meal rather than have a takeaway? 25. What does the man say about an element of stress in his job?

Section B Passage One Since early times, people have been fascinated with the idea of life existing somewhere else besides earth. Until recently, scientists believed that life on other planet was just a hopeful dream. But now they are beginning to locate places where life could form. In 1997, they saw evidence of planets near other stars like the sun. But scientists now think that life could be even nearer in our own solar system. One place scientists are studying very closely is Europa, a moon of Jupiter. Space probes have provided evidence that Europa has a large ocean under its surface. The probes have also made the scientists think that under its surface Europa has a rocky core giving off volcanic heat. Water and heat from volcanic activity are two basic conditions needed for life to form. A third is certain basic chemicals such as carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. Scientists believe there might be such chemicals lying at the bottom of Europa’s ocean. They may have already created life, or maybe about to. You may wonder if light is also need for life to form. Until recently, scientists thought that light was essential. But now, places have been found on earth that are in total in blackness, such as caves several miles beneath the ocean. And bacteria, primitive forms of life have been seen there. So the lack of light in Europa’s subsurface ocean doesn’t automatically rule out life forming. 26. What did scientists once believe according to the passage? 27. What have scientists found about Europa, a moon of Jupiter? 28. What have scientists come to know recently about the formation of life? Passage Two In her early days as an emergency room physician, Dr. Joanna Meyer treated a child who had suffered a second degree burn. After the child had been treated, and was being prepared for discharge, Dr. Meyer talked to the parents about how they should care for the child at home, also listening to her were half a dozen family members. A few hours later, when she came to say goodbye, the family asked her to settle an argument they’ve been having over exactly what advice she had given. “As I talked to them, I was amazed.” she said, “All of them had heard the simple instructions I had given just a few hours before. But they had three or four different versions. The most basic details were unclear and confusing. I was surprised, because these were intelligent people.” This episode gave Dr. Meyer her first clue to something every doctor learns sooner or later – most people just don’t listen very well. Nowadays, she says, she repeats her instructions, and even conducts a reality check with some patients. She asks them to tell her what they think they’re supposed to do. She also provides take-home sheets, which are computer printouts, tailored to the patients’ situation. Dr. Meyer’s listeners are not unusual. When new or difficult material is presented, almost all listeners are faced with a challenge, because human’s speech lacks the stability and permanence of the printed word. Oral communication is fast-moving and impermanent. Question 29-31 Q29. What did the child’s family members argue about in the hospital? Q30. What does Dr. Meyer do to ensure her patients understand her instructions?

Q31. What does the speaker say about human speech? Passage 3 It is logical to suppose that things like good labor relations, good working conditions, good wages and benefits, and job security motivate workers. But one expert, Frederick Herzberg argued that such conditions do not motivate workers, they are merely satisfiers. Motivators, in contrast, include things such as having a challenging and interesting job, recognition and responsibility. However, even with the development of computers and robotics, there are always plenty of boring, repetitive and mechanical jobs, and lots of unskilled people who have to do them. So how do managers motivate people in such jobs? One solution is to give them some responsibilities, not as individuals, but as a team. For example, some supermarkets combine office staff, the people who fill the shelves, and the people who work at the checkout into a team. And let them decide what product lines to stock, how to display them, and so on. Many people now talk about the importance of a company shared values or culture, with which all the staff can identify. For example, being the best hotel chain, or making the best, the most user friendly, or the most reliable products in a particular field. Such values are more likely to motivate workers than financial targets, which ultimately only concern a few people. Unfortunately, there is only a limited number of such goals to go around. And by definition, not all the competing companies in an industry can seriously play in to be the best. Question 32-35 Q32. What can actually motivate workers according to Frederick Herzberg? Q33. What does the speaker say about jobs in the computer era? Q34. What do some supermarkets do to motivate employees? Q35. Why does the speaker say financial targets are less likely to motivate workers? Section C In the humanities, authors write to inform you in many ways. These methods can be classified into three types of informational writing: factual, descriptive and process. Factual writing provides background information on an author, composer or artist, or on a type of music, literature or art. Examples of factual writing include notes on a book jacket, or album cover and longer pieces, such as an article describing a style of music, which you might read in a music appreciation course. This kind of writing provides a context for your study of the humanities. As its name implies, descriptive writing simply describes, or provides an image of a piece of music, art or literature. For example, descriptive writing might list the colors an artists used in the painting, or the instrument a composer included in a musical composition, so as to make pictures or sound in the readers’ mind, by calling up specific details of the work. Descriptive writing in the humanities, particularly in literature, is often mixed with critical writing. Process writing explains a series of actions that bring about result. It tells the reader how to do something. For example, explaining the technique used to shoot a film. This kind of writing is often found in art, where understanding how an art has created a certain effect is important. Authors may actually use more than one type of technique in a given piece of informational writing.


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