PART I LISTENING COMPREHENSION (35 MIN) SECTION A MINI-LECTURE In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY While listening, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a gap-filling task after the mini-lecture. When the lecture is over, you will be given two minutes to check your notes, and another ten minutes to complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE. Use the blank sheet for note-taking. Writing Experimental Reports I.Content of an experimental report, e.g. --- study subject/ area --- study purpose --- ____1____ II.Presentation of an experimental report --- providing details --- regarding readers as _____2_____ III.Structure of an experimental report --- feature: highly structured and ____3____ --- sections and their content: INTRODUCTION ____4____; why you did it METHOD how you did it RESULT what you found out ____5____ what you think it shows IV. Sense of readership --- ____6____: reader is the marker --- ____7____: reader is an idealized, hypothetical, intelligent person with little knowledge of your study --- tasks to fulfill in an experimental report: ν introduction to relevant area necessary background informationν ν development of clear arguments definition of technical termsν preciseν description of data ____8____ V. Demands and expectations in report writing --- early stage: understanding of study subject/area and itsν implications basic grasp of the report's formatν --- later stage: ν ____9____ on research significance --- things to avoid in writing INTRODUCTION: inadequate materialν ____10____ of research justificationν for the study

SECTION B INTERVIEW In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your coloured answer sheet. Questions 1 to 5 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 10 seconds to answer each of the following five questions. Now listen to the interview. 1. Which of the following statements is CORRECT? A. Toastmasters was originally set up to train speaking skills. B. Toastmasters only accepts prospective professional speakers. C. Toastmasters accepts members from the general public. D. Toastmasters is an exclusive club for professional speakers. 2. The following are job benefits by joining Toastmasters EXCEPT A. becoming familiar with various means of communication. B. learning how to deliver messages in an organized way. C. becoming aware of audience expectations. D. learning how to get along with friends. 3. Toastmasters' general approach to training can be summarized as A. practice plus overall training. B. practice plus lectures. C. practice plus voice training. D. practice plus speech writing. 4. Toastmasters aims to train people to be all the following EXCEPT A. public speakers. B. grammar teachers. C. masters of ceremonies. D. evaluators. 5. The interview mainly focuses on A. the background information. B. the description of training courses. C. the requirements of public speaking. D. the overall personal growth. SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your coloured answer sheet. Questions 6 and 7 are'based on the foUowing news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the news. 6. Which of the following is the main cause of global warming? A. Fossil fuel. B. Greenhouse gases. C. Increased dryness.

D. Violent storm patterns. 7. The news item implies that ______ in the last report. A. there were fewer studies done B. there were fewer policy proposals C. there was less agreement D. there were fewer objectives Questions 8 and 9 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the news. 8. The cause of the Indian train accident was A. terrorist sabotage. B. yet to be determined. C. lack of communications. D. bad weather. 9. Which of the following statements is CORRECT? A. The accident occurred on a bridge. B. The accident occurred in New Delhi. C. There were about 600 casualties. D. Victims were rescued immediately. Question 10 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news. 10. What is the main message of the news item? A. Young people should seek careers advice. B. Careers service needs to be improved. C. Businesses are not getting talented people. D. Careers advice is not offered on the Intemet. PART II READING COMPREHENSION (30 MIN) In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of 20 multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your coloured answer sheet. TEXT A We had been wanting to expand our children's horizons by taking them to a place that was unlike anything we'd been exposed to during our travels in Europe and the United States. In thinking about what was possible from Geneva, where we are based, we decided on a trip to Istanbul, a two-hour plane ride from Zurich. We envisioned the trip as a prelude to more exotic ones, perhaps to New Delhi or Bangkok later this year, but thought our 11- and 13-year-olds needed a first step away from manicured boulevards and pristine monuments. What we didn't foresee was the reaction of friends, who warned that we were putting our children "in danger," referring vaguely, and most incorrectly, to disease, terrorism or just the unknown. To help us get acquainted with the peculiarities of Istanbul and to give our children a chance to choose what they were particularly interested in seeing, we bought an excellent guidebook and read it thoroughly before leaving. Friendly warnings didn't change our planning, although we might have more prudently checked with the U.S.

State Department's list of troublespots. We didn't see a lot of children among the foreign visitors during our six-day stay in Istanbul, but we found the tourist areas quite safe, very interesting and varied enough even to suit our son, whose oft-repeated request is that we not see "every single" church and museum in a given city. Vaccinations weren't needed for the city, but we were concemed about adapting to the water for a short stay. So we used bottled water for drinking and brushing our teeth, a precaution that may seem excessive, but we all stayed healthy. Taking the advice of a friend, we booked a hotel a 20-minute walk from most of Istanbul's major tourist sites. This not only got us some morning exercise, strolling over the Karakoy Bridge, but took us past a colorful assortment of fishermen, vendors and shoe shiners. From a teenager and pre-teen's view, Istanbul street life is fascinating since almost everything can be bought outdoors. They were at a good age to spend time wandering the labyrinth of the Spice Bazaar, where shops display mounds of pungent herbs in sacks. Doing this with younger children would be harder simply because the streets are so packed with people; it would be easy to get lost. For our two, whose buying experience consisted of department stores and shopping mall boutiques, it was amazing to discover that you could bargain over price and perhaps end up with two of something for the price of one. They also learned to figure out the relative value of the Turkish lira, not a small matter with its many zeros. Being exposed to Islam was an important part of our trip. Visiting the mosques, especially the enormous Blue Mosque, was our first glimpse into how this major religion is practiced. Our children's curiosity already had been piqued by the five daily calls to prayer over loudspeakers in every corner of the city, and the scarves covering the heads of many women. Navigating meals can be troublesome with children, but a kebab, bought on the street or in restaurants, was unfailingly popular. Since we had decided this trip was not for gourmets, kebabs spared us the agony of trying to find a restaurant each day that would suit the adults' desire to try something new amid children's insistence that the food be served immediately. Gradually, we branched out to try some other Turkish specialties. Although our son had studied Islam briefly, it is impossible to be prepared for every awkward question that might come up, such as during our visits to the Topkapi Sarayi, the Ottoman Sultans' palace. No guides were available so it was do-it-yourself, using our guidebook, which cheated us of a lot of interesting history and anecdotes that a professional guide could provide. Next time, we resolved to make such arrangements in advance. On this trip, we wandered through the magnificent complex, with its imperial treasures, its courtyards and its harem. The last required a bit of explanation that we would have happily lef~to a learned third party. 11. The couple chose Istanbul as their holiday destination mainly because A. the city is not too far away from where they lived. B. the city is not on the list of the U.S. State Department. C. the city is between the familiar and the exotic. D. the city is more familiar than exotic. 12. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?

A. The family found the city was exactly what they had expected. B. Their friends were opposed to their holiday plan. C. They could have been more cautious about bringing kids along. D. They were a bit cautious about the quality of water in the city. 13. We learn from the couple's shopping experience back home that A. they were used to bargaining over price. B. they preferred to buy things outdoors. C. street markets were their favourite. D. they preferred fashion and brand names. 14. The last two paragraphs suggest that to visit places of interest in Istanbul A. guidebooks are very useful. B. a professional guide is a must. C. one has to be prepared for questions. D. one has to make arrangements in advance. 15. The family have seen or visited all the following in Istanbul EXCEPT A. religious prayers. B. historical buildings. C. local-style markets. D. shopping mall boutiques. TEXT B Last month the first baby-boomers turned 60. The bulky generation born between 1946 and 1964 is heading towards retirement. The looming "demographic cliff" will see vast numbers of skilled workers dispatched from the labour force. The workforce is ageing across the rich world. Within the EU the number of workers aged between 50 and 64 will increase by 25% over the next two decades, while those aged 20-29 will decrease by 20%. In Japan almost 20% of the population is already over 65, the highest share in the world. And in the United States the number of workers aged 55-64 will have increased by more than half in this decade, at the same time as the 35- to 44-year-olds decline by 10%. Given that most societies are geared to retirement at around 65, companies have a looming problem of knowledge management, of making sure that the boomers do not leave before they have handed over their expertise along with the office keys and their e-mail address. A survey of human-resources directors by IBM last year concluded: "When the baby-boomer generation retires, many companies will find out too late that a career's worth of experience has walked out the door, leaving insufficient talent to fill in the void." Some also face a shortage of expertise. In aerospace and defence, for example, as much as 40% of the workforce in some companies will be eligible to retire within the next five years. At the same time, the number of engineering graduates in developed countries is in steep decline. A few companies are so squeezed that they are already taking exceptional measures. Earlier this year the Los Angeles Times interviewed an enterprising Australian who was staying in Beverly Hills while he tried to persuade locals to emigrate to Toowoomba, Queensland, to work for his engineering company there. Toowoomba today; the rest of the developed world tomorrow?

If you look hard enough, you can find companies that have begun to adapt the workplace to older workers. The AARP, an American association for the over-50s, produces an annual list of the best employers of its members. Health-care firms invariably come near the top because they are one of the industries most in need of skilled labour. Other sectors similarly affected, says the Conference Board, include oil, gas, energy and government. Near the top of the AARP's latest list comes Deere & Company, a no-nonsense industrial-equipment manufacturer based in Illinois; about 35% of Deere's 46,000 employees are over 50 and a number of them are in their 70s. The tools it uses to achieve that - flexible working, telecommuting, and so forth - also coincidentaUy help older workers to extend their working lives. The company spends "a lot of time" on the ergonomics of its factories, making jobs there less tiring, which enables older workers to stay at them for longer. Likewise, for more than a decade, Toyota, arguably the world's most advanced manufacturer, has adapted its workstations to older workers. The shortage of skilled labour available to the automotive industry has made it unusually keen to recruit older workers. BMW recently set up a factory in Leipzig that expressly set out to employ people over the age of 45. Needs must when the devil drives. Other firms are polishing their alumni networks. IBM uses its network to recruit retired people for particular projects. Ernst & Young, a professional-services firm, has about 30,000 registered alumni, and about 25% of its "experienced" new recruits are former employees who return after an absence. But such examples are unusual. A survey in America last month by Ernst & Young found that "although corporate America foresees a significant workforce shortage as boomers retire, it is not dealing with the issue." Almost three-quarters of the 1,400 global companies questioned by Deloitte last year said they expected a shortage of salaried staff over the next three to five years. Yet few of them are looking to older workers to fill that shortage; and even fewer are looking to them to fill another gap that has already appeared. Many firms in Europe and America complain that they struggle to find qualified directors for their boards - this when the pool of retired talent from those very same firms is growing by leaps and bounds. Why are firms not working harder to keep old employees? Part of the reason is that the crunch has been beyond the horizon of most managers. Nor is hanging on to older workers the only way to cope with a falling supply of labour. The participation of developing countries in the world economy has increased the overall supply - whatever the local effect of demographics in the rich countries. A vast amount of work is being sent offshore to such places as China and India and more will go in future. Some countries, such as Australia, are relaxing their immigration policies to allow much needed skills to come in from abroad. Others will avoid the need for workers by spending money on machinery and automation. 16. According to the passage, the most serious consequence of baby-boomers approaching retirement would be A. a loss of knowledge and experience to many companies. B. a decrease in the number of 35- to 44- year-olds. C. a continuous increase in the number of 50-to 64-year-olds. D. its impact on the developed world whose workforce is ageing.

17. The following are all the measures that companies have adopted to cope with the ageing workforce EXCEPT A. making places of work accommodate the needs of older workers. B. using alumni networks to hire retired former employees. C. encouraging former employees to work overseas. D. granting more convenience in working hours to older workers. 18. "The company spends 'a lot of time' on the ergonomics of its factories" (Paragraph Seven) means that A. the company attaches great importance to the layout of its factories. B. the company improves the working conditions in its factories. C. the company attempts to reduce production costs of its factories. D. the company intends to renovate its factories and update equipment. 19. In the author's opinion American firms are not doing anything to deal with the issue of the ageing workforce mainly because A. they have not been aware of the problem. B. they are reluctant to hire older workers. C. they are not sure of what they should do. D. they have other options to consider. 20. Which of the following best describes the author's development of argument? A. introducing the issue---citing ways to deal with the issue---~describing the actual status---offering reasons. B. describing the actual status--- introducing the issue---citing ways to deal with the issue---offering reasons. C. citing ways to deal with the issue---introducing the issue----describing the actual status---offering reasons. D. describing the actual status--offering reasons---introducing the issue---citing ways to deal with the issue. TEXT C (1) The other problem that arises from the employment of women is that of the working wife. It has two aspects: that of the wife who is more of a success than her husband and that of the wife who must rely heavily on her husband for help with domestic tasks. There are various ways in which the impact of the first difficulty can be reduced. Provided that husband and wife are not in the same or directly comparable lines of work, the harsh fact of her greater success can be obscured by a genial conspiracy to reject a purely monetary measure of achievement as intolerably crude. Where there are ranks, it is best if the couple work in different fields so that the husband can find some special reason for the superiority of the lowest figure in his to the most elevated in his wife's. (2) A problem that affects a much larger number of working wives is the need to re-allocate domestic tasks if there are children. In The Road to Wigan Pier George Orwell wrote of the unemployed of the Lancashire coalfields: "Practically never ... in a working-class home, will you see the man doing a stroke of the housework. Unemployment has not changed this convention, which on the face of it seems a little unfair. The man is idle from morning to night but the woman is as busy as ever - more so, indeed, because she has to manage with less money. Yet so far as myexperience goes the women do not protest. They feel that a man would lose his manhood if, merely because he was out of work, he developed in a 'Mary Ann'." (3) It is over the care of young children that this re-allocation of duties becomes really

significant. For this, unlike the cooking of fish fingers or the making of beds, is an inescapably time-consuming occupation, and time is what the fully employed wife has no more to spare of than her husband. (4) The male initiative in courtship is a pretty indiscriminate affair, something that is tried on with any remotely plausible woman who comes within range and, of course, with all degrees of tentativeness. What decides the issue of whether a genuine courtship is going to get under way is the woman's response. If she shows interest the engines of persuasion are set in movement. The truth is that in courtship society gives women the real power while pretending to give it to men. (5) What does seem clear is that the more men and women are together, at work and away from it, the more the comprehensive amorousness of men towards women will have to go, despite all its past evolutionary services. For it is this that makes inferiority at work abrasive and, more indirectly, makes domestic work seem unmanly, if there is to be an equalizing redistribution of economic and domestic tasks between men and women there must be a compensating redistribution of the erotic initiative. If women will no longer let us beat them they must allow us to join them as the blushing recipients of flowers and chocolates. 21. Paragraph One advises the working wife who is more successful than her husband to A. work in the same sort of job as her husband. B. play down her success, making it sound unimportant. C. stress how much the family gains from her high salary. D. introduce more labour-saving machinery into the home. 22. Orwell's picture of relations between man and wife in Wigan Pier (Paragraph Two) describes a relationship which the author of the passage A. thinks is the natural one. B. wishes to see preserved. C. believes is fair. D. is sure must change. 23. Which of the following words is used literally, NOT metaphorically? A. Abrasive (Paragraph Five). B. Engines (Paragraph Four). C. Convention (Paragraph Two). D. Heavily (Paragraph One). 24. The last paragraph stresses that if women are to hold important jobs, then they must A. sometimes make the first advances in love. B. allow men to flirt with many women. C. stop accepting presents of flowers and chocolates. D. avoid making their husbands look like "Mary Anns". 25. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT about the present form of courtship? A. Men are equally serious about courtship. B. Each man "makes passes" at many women. C. The woman's reaction decides the fate of courtship. D. The man leaves himself the opportunity to give up the chase quickly. TEXT D From Namche Bazaar, the Sherpa capital at 12,000 feet, the long line threaded south,

dropping 2,000 feet to the valley floor, then trudged down the huge Sola-Khumbu canyon until it opened out to the lush but still daunting foothills of Central Nepal. It was here at Namche that one man broke rank and leaned north, slowly and arduously climbing the steep walls of the natural amphitheater behind the scatter of stone huts, then past Kunde and Khumjong. Despite wearing a balaclava on his head, he had been frequently recognized by the Tibetans, and treated with the gravest deference and respect. Even among those who knew nothing about him, expressions of surprise lit up their dark, liquid eyes. He was a man not expected to be there. Not only was his stature substantially greater than that of the diminutive Tibetans, but it was also obvious from his bearing - and his new broadcloak, which covered a much-too-tight army uniform - that he came from a markedly loftier station in life than did the average Tibetan. Among a people virtually bereft of possessions, he had fewer still, consisting solely of a rounded bundle about a foot in diameter slung securely by a cord over his shoulder. The material the bundle was wrapped in was of a rough Tibetan weave, which did not augur that the content was of any greater value - except for the importance he seemed to ascribe to it, never for a moment releasing his grip. His objective was a tiny huddle of buildings perched halfway up an enormous valley wall across from him, atop a great wooded spur jutting out from the lower lap of the 22,493-foot Ama Dablum, one of the most majestic mountains on earth. There was situated Tengboche, the most famous Buddhist monastery in the Himalayas, its setting unsurpassed for magnificence anywhere on the planet. From the top of the spur, one's eyes sweep 12 miles up the stupendous Dudh Kosi canyon to the six-mile-long granite wall of cliff of Nuptse at its head. If Ama Dablum is the Gatekeeper,then the sheer cliff of Nuptse, never less than four miles high, is the Final Protector of the highest and mightiest of them all: Chomolongma, the Mother Goddess of the World, to the Tibetans; Sagarmatha, the Head of the Seas, to the Nepalese; and Everest to the rest of us. And over the great barrier of Nuptse She demurely peaks. It was late in the afternoon - when the great shadows cast by the colossal mountains were descending into the deep valley floors - before he reached the crest of the spur and shuffled to a stop just past Tengboche's entrance gompa. His chest heaving in the rarefied air, he removed his hand from the bundle--the first time he had done so - and wiped grimy rivulets of sweat from around his eyes with the fingers of his mitted hand. His narrowed eyes took in the open sweep of the quiet grounds, the pagoda-like monastery itself, and the stone buildings that tumbled down around it like a protective skirt. In the distance the magic light of the magic hour lit up the plume flying off Chomolongma's 29,029-foot-high crest like a bright, welcoming banner. His breathing calmed, he slowly, stiffly struggled forward and up the rough stone steps to the monastery entrance. There he was greeted with a respectful nameste -"I recognize the divine in you" - from a tall, slim monk of about 35 years, who hastily set aside a twig broom he had been using to sweep the flagstones of the inner courtyard. While he did so, the visitor noticed that the monk was missing the small finger on his left hand. The stranger spoke a few formal words in Tibetan, and then the two disappeared inside.

Early the next morning the emissary - lightened of his load - appeared at the monastery entrance, accompanied by the same monk and the elderly abbot. After a bow of his head, which was returned much more deeply by the two ocher-robed residents, he took his leave. The two solemn monks watched, motionless, until he dipped over the ridge on which the monastery sat, and out of sight. Then, without a word, they turned and went back inside the monastery. 26. Which of the following words in Paragraph One implies difficulty in walking? A. "threaded". B. "dropping". C. "trudged". D. "daunting". 27. In the passage the contrast between the Tibetans and the man is indicated in all the following aspects EXCEPT A. clothing. B. height. C. social status. D. personal belongings. 28. It can be inferred from the passage that one can get ______ of the region from the monastery. A. a narrow view B. a hazy view C. a distant view D. a panoramic view 29. Which of the following details shows that the man became relaxed after he reached the monastery? A. "...he reached the crest of the spur and shuffled to a stop..." B. "...he removed his hand from the bundle..." C. "His narrowed eyes took in the open sweep of the quiet grounds..." D. "...he slowly, stiffly struggled forward and up the rough stone steps..." 30. From how it is described in the passage the monastery seems to evoke A. a sense of awe. B. a sense of piety. C. a sense of fear. D. a sense of mystery. PART III GENERAL KNOWLEDGE (10 MIN) There are ten multiple-choice questions in this section. Choose the best answer to each question. Mark your answers on your coloured answer sheet. 31. The Head of State of New Zealand is A. the governor-general. B. the Prime Minister. C. the high commissioner. D. the monarch of the United Kingdom.

32. The capital of Scotland is A. Glasgow. B. Edinburgh. C. Manchester. D. London. 33. Who wrote the Declaration of Independence and later became the U.S. President? A. Thomas Jefferson. B. George Washington. C. Thomas Paine. D. John Adams. 34. Which of the following cities is located on the eastern coast of Australia? A. Perth. B. Adelaide. C. Sydney. D. Melbourne. 35. Ode to the West Windwas written by A. William Blake. B. William Wordsworth. C. Samuel Taylor Coleridge. D. Percy B. Shelley. 36. Who among the following is a poet of free verse? A. Ralph Waldo Emerson. B. Walt Whitman. C. Herman Melville D. Theodore Dreiser. 37. The novel Sons and Lovers was written by A. Thomas Hardy. B. John Galsworthy. C. D.H. Lawrence. D. James Joyce. 38. The study of the mental processes of language comprehension and production is A. corpus linguistics. B. sociolinguistics. C. theoretical linguistics. D. psycholinguistics. 39. A special language variety that mixes languages and is used by speakers of different languages for purposes of trading is called A. dialect. B. idiolect. C. pidgin. D. register.

40. When a speaker expresses his intention of speaking, such as asking someone to open the window, he is performing A. an illocutionary act. B. a perlocutionary act. C. a locutionary act. D. none of the above. PART IV PROOFREADING & ERROR CORRECTION (15 MIN) Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET TWO as instructed. When ∧ art museum wants a new exhibit, (1)_______ it never buys things in finished form and hangs (2)_______ them on the wall. When a natural history museum wants an exhibition, it must often build i. (3)_______ The previous section has shown how quickly a rhyme passes from one schoolchild to the next and illustrates the further difference ____1____ between school lore and nursery lore. In nursery lore a verse, learnt in early childhood, is not usually passed on again when the little listener ____2____ has grown up, and has children of their own, or even grandchildren. ____3_____ The period between learning a nursery rhyme and transmitting it may be something from 20 to 70 years. With the playground ____4____ lore, therefore, a rhyme may be excitedly passed on within the very hour ____5____ it is learnt; and, in the general, it passes between children of the ____6____ same age, or nearly so, since it is uncommon for the differnce in age between playmates to be more than five years. If, therefore, a playground rhyme can be shown to have been currently for a hundred years, or ____7____ even just for fifty, it follows that it has been retransmitted over and over, very possibly it has passed along a chain of two or three ____8____ hundred young hearers and tellers, and the wonder is that it remains live ____9____ after so much handling, to let alone that it bears resemblance to the ____10____ original wording. PART V TRANSLATION (60 MIN) SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH Translate the underlined part of the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE. 我想不起来哪一个熟人没有手机。今天没有手机的人是奇怪的,这种人才需要解释。我们的所有社会关 系都储存在手机的电话本里,可以随时调出使用。古代只有巫师才能拥有这种法宝。 手机刷新了人与人的关系。会议室门口通常贴着一条通告:请与会者关闭手机。可是会议室里的手机铃 声仍然响成一片。我们都是普通人,并没有多少重要的事情。尽管如此,我们也不会轻易关掉手机。打 开手机象征我们与这个世界的联系。手机反映出我们的"社交饥渴症"。最为常见的是,一个人走着走着 突然停下来,眼睛盯着手机屏幕发短信。他不在乎停在马路中央还是厕所旁边。 为什么对于手机来电和短信这么在乎?因为我们迫切渴望与社会保持联系。 SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

We, the human species, are confronting a planetary emergency - a threat to the survival of our civilization that is gathering ominous and destructive potential even as we gather here. But thereis hopeful news as well: we have the ability to solve this crisis and avoid the worst - though not all - of its consequences, if we act boldly, decisively and quickly. However, too many of the world's leaders are still best described in the words of Winston Churchill applied to those who ignored Adolf Hitler's threat: "They go on in strange paradox, decided only to be undecided, resolved to be irresolute, all powerful to be impotent." So today, we dumped another 70 million tons of global-warming pollution into the thin shell of atmosphere surrounding our planet, as if it were an open sewer. And tomorrow, we will dump a slightly larger amount, with the cumulative concentrations now trapping more and more heat from the sun. PART Vl WRITING (45 MIN) Mandarin, or putonghua, is the standard service sector language in our country. But recently, employees at a big city's subway station have been busy learning dialects of other parts of the country. Proponents say that using dialects in the subway is a way to provide better service. But opponents think that encouraging the use of dialects in public counters the national policy to promote putonghua. What is your opinion? Write an essay of about 400 words on the following topic: Are Dialects Just as Acceptable in Public Places? In the first part of your essay you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second partyou should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary. Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks. Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.

2010 英语专八真题

SECTION A MINI-LECTURE In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a gap-filling task after the mini-lecture. When the lecture is over, you will be given two minutes to check your notes, and another ten minutes to complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE. Use the blank sheet for note-taking. Complete the gap-filling task. Some of the gaps below may require a maximum of THREE words. Make sure the word(s) you fill in is (are) both grammatically & semantically acceptable. You may refer to your notes. Paralinguistic Features of Language In face-to-face communication speakers often alter their tomes of voice or change their physical postures in order to convey messages. These means are called paralinguistic features of language, which fall into two categories. First category: vocal paralinguistic features A. (1)__________: to express attitude or intention (1)__________ B. Examples 1. whispering: need for secrecy 2. breathiness: deep emotion 3. (2)_________: unimportance (2)__________ 4. nasality: anxiety 5. extra lip-rounding: greater intimacy Second category: physical paralinguistic features A. facial expressions 1. (3)_______ (3)__________ ----- smiling: signal of pleasure or welcome 2. less common expressions ----- eye brow raising: surprise or interest ----- lip biting: (4)________ (4)_________ B. gesture gestures are related to culture. 1. British culture ----- shrugging shoulders: (5) ________ (5)__________ ----- scratching head: puzzlement 2. other cultures ----- placing hand upon heart:(6)_______ (6)__________ ----- pointing at nose: secret C. proximity, posture and echoing 1. proximity: physical distance between speakers ----- closeness: intimacy or threat ----- (7)_______: formality or absence of interest (7)_________ Proximity is person-, culture- and (8)________ -specific. (8)_________ 2. posture ----- hunched shoulders or a hanging head: to indicate(9)_____ (9)________ ----- direct level eye contact: to express an open or challenging attitude 3. echoing ----- definition: imitation of similar posture ----- (10)______: aid in communication (10)___________ ----- conscious imitation: mockery SECTION B INTERVIEW In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on ANSWER SHEET TWO.

Questions 1 to 5 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 10 seconds to answer each of the following five questions. Now listen to the interview. 1. According to Dr Johnson, diversity means A. merging of different cultural identities. B. more emphasis on homogeneity. C. embracing of more ethnic differences. D. acceptance of more branches of Christianity. 2. According to the interview, which of the following statements in CORRECT? A. Some places are more diverse than others. B. Towns are less diverse than large cities. C. Diversity can be seen everywhere. D. American is a truly diverse country. 3. According to Dr Johnson, which place will witness a radical change in its racial makeup by 2025? A. Maine B. Selinsgrove C. Philadelphia D. California 4. During the interview Dr Johnson indicates that A. greater racial diversity exists among younger populations. B. both older and younger populations are racially diverse. C. age diversity could lead to pension problems. D. older populations are more racially diverse. 5. According to the interview, religious diversity A. was most evident between 1990 and 2000. B. exists among Muslim immigrants. C. is restricted to certain places in the US. D. is spreading to more parts of the country. SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your coloured answer sheet. Question 6 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news. 6. What is the main idea of the news item? A. Sony developed a computer chip for cell phones. B. Japan will market its wallet phone abroad. C. The wallet phone is one of the wireless innovations. D. Reader devices are available at stores and stations. Question 7 and 8 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the news. 7. Which of the following is mentioned as the government’s measure to control inflation? A. Foreign investment. B. Donor support. C. Price control. D. Bank prediction. 8. According to Kingdom Bank, what is the current inflation rate in Zimbabwe? A. 20 million percent. B. 2.2 million percent.

C. 11.2 million percent. D. Over 11.2 million percent. Question 9 and 10 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news. 9. Which of the following is CORRECT? A. A big fire erupted on the Nile River. B. Helicopters were used to evacuate people. C. Five people were taken to hospital for burns. D. A big fire took place on two floors. 10. The likely cause of the big fire is A. electrical short-cut. B. lack of fire-satefy measures. C. terrorism. D. not known. PART II READING COMPREHENSION (30 MIN) In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of 20 multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your coloured answer sheet. TEXT A Still, the image of any city has a half-life of many years. (So does its name, officially changed in 2001 from Calcutta to Kolkata, which is closer to what the word sounds like in Bengali. Conversing in English, I never heard anyone call the city anything but Calcutta.) To Westerners, the conveyance most identified with Kolkata is not its modern subway—a facility whose spacious stations have art on the walls and cricket matches on television monitors—but the hand-pulled rickshaw. Stories and films celebrate a primitive-looking cart with high wooden wheels, pulled by someone who looks close to needing the succor of Mother Teresa. For years the government has been talking about eliminating hand-pulled rickshaws on what it calls humanitarian grounds—principally on the ground that, as the mayor of Kolkata has often said, it is offensive to see “one man sweating and straining to pull another man.” But these days politicians also lament the impact of 6,000 hand-pulled rickshaws on a modern city’s traffic and, particularly, on its image. “Westerners try to associate beggars and these rickshaws with the Calcutta landscape, but this is not what Calcutta stands for,” the chief minister of West Bengal, Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee, said in a press conference in 2006. “Our city stands for prosperity and development.” The chief minister—the equivalent of a state governor—went on to announce that hand-pulled rickshaws soon would be banned from the streets of Kolkata. Rickshaws are not there to haul around tourists. (Actually, I saw almost no tourists in Kolkata, apart from the young backpackers on Sudder Street, in what used to be a red-light district and is now said to be the single place in the city where the services a rickshaw puller offers may include providing female company to a gentleman for the evening.) It’s the people in the lanes who most regularly use rickshaws—not the poor but people who are just a notch above the poor. They are people who tend to travel short distances, through lanes that are sometimes inaccessible to even the most daring taxi driver. An older woman with marketing to do, for instance, can arrive in a rickshaw, have the rickshaw puller wait until she comes back from various stalls to load her purchases, and then be taken home. People in the lanes use rickshaws as a 24-hour ambulance service. Proprietors of cafés or corner stores send rickshaws to collect their supplies. (One morning I saw a rickshaw puller take on a load of live chickens—tied in pairs by the feet so they could be draped over the shafts and the folded back canopy and even the axle. By the time he trotted off, he was carrying about a hundred upside-down chickens.) The rickshaw pullers told me their steadiest customers are schoolchildren. Middle-class families contract with a puller to take a child to school and pick him up; the puller essentially becomes a family retainer.

From June to September Kolkata can get torrential rains, and its drainage system doesn’t need torrential rain to begin backing up. Residents who favor a touch of hyperbole say that in Kolkata “if a stray cat pees, there’s a flood.” During my stay it once rained for about 48 hours. Entire neighborhoods couldn’t be reached by motorized vehicles, and the newspapers showed pictures of rickshaws being pulled through water that was up to the pullers’ waists. When it’s raining, the normal customer base for rickshaw pullers expands greatly, as does the price of a journey. A writer in Kolkata told me, “When it rains, even the governor takes rickshaws.” While I was in Kolkata, a magazine called India Today published its annual ranking of Indian states, according to such measurements as prosperity and infrastructure. Among India’s 20 largest states, Bihar finished dead last, as it has for four of the past five years. Bihar, a couple hundred miles north of Kolkata, is where the vast majority of rickshaw pullers come from. Once in Kolkata, they sleep on the street or in their rickshaws or in a dera—a combination garage and repair shop and dormitory managed by someone called a sardar. For sleeping privileges in a dera, pullers pay 100 rupees (about $2.50) a month, which sounds like a pretty good deal until you’ve visited a dera. They gross between 100 and 150 rupees a day, out of which they have to pay 20 rupees for the use of the rickshaw and an occasional 75 or more for a payoff if a policeman stops them for, say, crossing a street where rickshaws are prohibited. A 2003 study found that rickshaw pullers are near the bottom of Kolkata occupations in income, doing better than only the ragpickers and the beggars. For someone without land or education, that still beats trying to make a living in Bihar. There are people in Kolkata, particularly educated and politically aware people, who will not ride in a rickshaw, because they are offended by the idea of being pulled by another human being or because they consider it not the sort of thing people of their station do or because they regard the hand-pulled rickshaw as a relic of colonialism. Ironically, some of those people are not enthusiastic about banning rickshaws. The editor of the editorial pages of Kolkata’s Telegraph—Rudrangshu Mukherjee, a former academic who still writes history books—told me, for instance, that he sees humanitarian considerations as coming down on the side of keeping hand-pulled rickshaws on the road. “I refuse to be carried by another human being myself,” he said, “but I question whether we have the right to take away their livelihood.” Rickshaw supporters point out that when it comes to demeaning occupations, rickshaw pullers are hardly unique in Kolkata. When I asked one rickshaw puller if he thought the government’s plan to rid the city of rickshaws was based on a genuine interest in his welfare, he smiled, with a quick shake of his head—a gesture I interpreted to mean, “If you are so naive as to ask such a question, I will answer it, but it is not worth wasting words on.” Some rickshaw pullers I met were resigned to the imminent end of their livelihood and pin their hopes on being offered something in its place. As migrant workers, they don’t have the political clout enjoyed by, say, Kolkata’s sidewalk hawkers, who, after supposedly being scaled back at the beginning of the modernization drive, still clog the sidewalks, selling absolutely everything—or, as I found during the 48 hours of rain, absolutely everything but umbrellas. “The government was the government of the poor people,” one sardar told me. “Now they shake hands with the capitalists and try to get rid of poor people.” But others in Kolkata believe that rickshaws will simply be confined more strictly to certain neighborhoods, out of the view of World Bank traffic consultants and California investment delegations—or that they will be allowed to die out naturally as they’re supplanted by more modern conveyances. Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee, after all, is not the first high West Bengal official to say that rickshaws would be off the streets of Kolkata in a matter of months. Similar statements have been made as far back as 1976. The ban decreed by Bhattacharjee has been delayed by a court case and by a widely held belief that some retraining or social security settlement ought to be offered to rickshaw drivers. It may also have been delayed by a quiet reluctance to give up something that has been part of the fabric of the city for more than a century. Kolkata, a resident told me, “has difficulty letting go.” One day a city official handed me a report from the municipal government laying out options for how rickshaw pullers might be rehabilitated.

“Which option has been chosen?” I asked, noting that the report was dated almost exactly a year before my visit. “That hasn’t been decided,” he said. “When will it be decided?” “That hasn’t been decided,” he said. 11. According to the passage, rickshaws are used in Kolkata mainly for the following EXCEPT A. taking foreign tourists around the city. B. providing transport to school children. C. carrying store supplies and purchases D. carrying people over short distances. 12. Which of the following statements best describes the rickshaw pullers from Bihar? A. They come from a relatively poor area. B. They are provided with decent accommodation. C. Their living standards are very low in Kolkata. D. They are often caught by policemen in the streets. 13. That “For someone without land or education, that still beats trying to make a living in Bihar” (4 paragraph) means that even so, A. the poor prefer to work and live in Bihar. B. the poor from Bihar fare better than back home. C. the poor never try to make a living in Bihar. D. the poor never seem to resent their life in Kolkata. 14. We can infer from the passage that some educated and politically aware people A. hold mixed feelings towards rickshaws. B. strongly support the ban on rickshaws. C. call for humanitarian actions fro rickshaw pullers. D. keep quiet on the issue of banning rickshaws.

15. Which of the following statements conveys the author’s sense of humor? A. “…not the poor but people who are just a notch above the poor.” (2 paragraph) B. “…,.which sounds like a pretty good deal until you’ve visited a dera.” (4 paragraph) C. Kolkata, a resident told me, “ has difficulty letting go.” (7 paragraph). D.“…or, as I found during the 48 hours of rain, absolutely everything but umbrellas.” (6 paragraph) 16. The dialogue between the author and the city official at the end of the passage seems to suggest A. the uncertainty of the court’s decision. B. the inefficiency of the municipal government. C. the difficulty of finding a good solution. D. the slowness in processing options. TEXT B Depending on whom you believe, the average American will, over a lifetime, wait in lines for two years (says National Public Radio) or five years (according to customer-loyalty experts). The crucial word is average, as wealthy Americans routinely avoid lines altogether. Once the most democratic of institutions, lines are rapidly becoming the exclusive province of suckers(people who still believe in and practice waiting in lines). Poor suckers, mostly. Airports resemble France before the Revolution: first-class passengers enjoy "élite" security lines and priority boarding, and disembark before the unwashed in coach, held at bay by a flight attendant, are allowed to foul the Jetway. At amusement parks, too, you can now buy your way out of line. This summer I haplessly watched kids use a $52 Gold Flash Pass to jump the lines at Six Flags New England, and similar systems are in use in most major American theme parks, from Universal Orlando to Walt Disney World, where the haves get to watch the have-mores breeze past on their way to their seats. Flash Pass teaches children a valuable lesson in real-world economics: that the rich are more important than you, especially when it comes to waiting. An NBA player once said to me, with a bemused chuckle of disbelief, that when playing in Canada--get this--"we have to wait in the same customs line as everybody else." Almost every line can be breached for a price. In several U.S. cities this summer, early arrivers among the early adopters waiting to buy iPhones offered to sell their spots in the lines. On Craigslist, prospective iPhone purchasers offered to pay "waiters" or "placeholders" to wait in line for them outside Apple stores. Inevitably, some semi-populist politicians have seen the value of sort-of waiting in lines with the ordinary people. This summer Philadelphia mayor John Street waited outside an AT&T store from 3:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. before a stand-in from his office literally stood in for the mayor while he conducted official business. And billionaire New York mayor Michael Bloomberg often waits for the subway with his fellow citizens, though

he's first driven by motorcade past the stop nearest his house to a station 22 blocks away, where the wait, or at least the ride, is shorter. As early as elementary school, we're told that jumping the line is an unethical act, which is why so many U.S. lawmakers have framed the immigration debate as a kind of fundamental sin of the school lunch line. Alabama Senator Richard Shelby, to cite just one legislator, said amnesty would allow illegal immigrants "to cut in line ahead of millions of people." Nothing annoys a national lawmaker more than a person who will not wait in line, unless that line is in front of an elevator at the U.S. Capitol, where Senators and Representatives use private elevators, lest they have to queue with their constituents. But compromising the integrity of the line is not just antidemocratic, it's out-of-date. There was something about the orderly boarding of Noah's Ark, two by two, that seemed to restore not just civilization but civility during the Great Flood. How civil was your last flight? Southwest Airlines has first-come, first-served festival seating. But for $5 per flight, an unaffiliated company called BoardFirst.com will secure you a coveted "A" boarding pass when that airline opens for online check-in 24 hours before departure. Thus, the savvy traveler doesn't even wait in line when he or she is online. Some cultures are not renowned for lining up. Then again, some cultures are too adept at lining up: a citizen of the former Soviet Union would join a queue just so he could get to the head of that queue and see what everyone was queuing for. And then there is the U.S., where society seems to be cleaving into two groups: Very Important Persons, who don't wait, and Very Impatient Persons, who do--unhappily. For those of us in the latter group-- consigned to coach, bereft of Flash Pass, too poor or proper to pay a placeholder --what do we do? We do what Vladimir and Estragon did in Waiting for Godot: "We wait. We are bored." 17. What does the following sentence mean? “Once the most democratic of institutions, lines are rapidly becoming the exclusive province of suckers…Poor suckers, mostly.” (2 paragraph) A. Lines are symbolic of America’s democracy. B. Lines still give Americans equal opportunities. C. Lines are now for ordinary Americans only. D. Lines are for people with democratic spirit only. 18. Which of the following is NOT cited as an example of breaching the line? A. Going through the customs at a Canadian airport. B. Using Gold Flash Passes in amusement parks. C. First-class passenger status at airports.

D. Purchase of a place in a line from a placeholder. 19. We can infer from the passage that politicians (including mayors and Congressmen) A. prefer to stand in lines with ordinary people. B. advocate the value of waiting in lines. C. believe in and practice waiting in lines. D. exploit waiting in lines for their own good. 20. What is the tone of the passage? A. Instructive. B. Humorous. C. Serious. D. Teasing. TEXT C A bus took him to the West End, where, among the crazy coloured fountains of illumination, shattering the blue dusk with green and crimson fire, he found the café of his choice, a tea-shop that had gone mad and turned. Bbylonian, a while palace with ten thousand lights. It towered above the other building like a citadel, which indeed it was, the outpost of a new age, perhaps a new civilization, perhaps a new barbarism; and behind the thin marble front were concrete and steel, just as behind the careless profusion of luxury were millions of pence, balanced to the last halfpenny. Somewhere in the background, hidden away, behind the ten thousand llights and acres of white napery and bewildering glittering rows of teapots, behind the thousand waitresses and cash-box girls and black-coated floor managers and temperamental long-haired violinists, behind the mounds of cauldrons of stewed steak, the vanloads of ices, were a few men who went to work juggling with fractions of a farming, who knew how many units of electricity it took to finish a steak-and-kidney pudding and how many minutes and seconds a waitress( five feet four in height and in average health) would need to carry a tray of given weight from the kitchen life to the table in the far corner. In short, there was a warm, sensuous, vulgar life flowering in the upper storeys, and a cold science working in the basement. Such as the gigantic tea-shop into which Turgis marched, in search not of mere refreshment but of all the enchantment of unfamiliar luxury. Perhaps he knew in his heart that men have conquered half the known world, looted whole kingdoms, and never arrived in such luxury. The place was built for him. It was built for a great many other people too, and, as usual, they were al there. It seemed with humanity. The marble entrance hall, piled dizzily with bonbons and cakes, was as crowded and bustling as a railway station. The gloom and grime of the streets, the raw air, all November, were at once left behind, forgotten: the atmosphere inside was golden, tropical, belonging to some high mid-summer of confectionery. Disdaining the lifts, Turgis, once more excited by the sight, sound, and smell of it all, climbed the wide staircase until he reached his favourite floor, whre an orchestra, led by a young Jewish violinist with wandering lustrous eyes and a passion for tremolo effects, acted as a magnet to a thousand girls, scented air, the sensuous clamour of the strings; and, as he stood hesitating a moment, half dazed, there came, bowing, s sleek grave man, older than he

was and far more distinguished than he could ever hope to be, who murmured deferentially: “ For one, sir? This way, please,” Shyly, yet proudly, Turgis followed him. 21. That “behind the thin marble front were concrete and steel” suggests that A. modern realistic commercialism existed behind the luxurious appearance. B. there was a fundamental falseness in the style and the appeal of the café.. C. the architect had made a sensible blend of old and new building materials. D. the café was based on physical foundations and real economic strength. 22. The following words or phrases are somewhat critical of the tea-shop EXCEPT A. “…turned Babylonian”. B. “perhaps a new barbarism’. C. “acres of white napery”. D. “balanced to the last halfpenny”. 23. In its context the statement that “ the place was built for him” means that the café was intended to A. please simple people in a simple way. B. exploit gullible people like him. C. satisfy a demand that already existed. D. provide relaxation for tired young men. 24. Which of the following statements about the second paragraph is NOT true? A. The café appealed to most senses simultaneously. B. The café was both full of people and full of warmth. C. The inside of the café was contrasted with the weather outside. D. It stressed the commercial determination of the café owners. 25. The following are comparisons made by the author in the second paragraph EXCEPT that A. the entrance hall is compared to a railway station. B. the orchestra is compared to a magnet. C. Turgis welcomed the lift like a conquering soldier.

D. the interior of the café is compared to warm countries. 26. The author’s attitude to the café is A. fundamentally critical. B. slightly admiring. C. quite undecided. D. completely neutral. TEXT D I Now elsewhere in the world, Iceland may be spoken of, somewhat breathlessly, as western Europe’s last pristine wilderness. But the environmental awareness that is sweeping the world had bypassed the majority of Icelanders. Certainly they were connected to their land, the way one is complicatedly connected to, or encumbered by, family one can’t do anything about. But the truth is, once you’re off the beat-en paths of the low-lying coastal areas where everyone lives, the roads are few, and they’re all bad, so Iceland’s natural wonders have been out of reach and unknown even to its own inhab-itants. For them the land has always just been there, something that had to be dealt with and, if possible, exploited—the mind-set being one of land as commodity rather than land as, well, priceless art on the scale of the “Mona Lisa.” When the opportunity arose in 2003 for the national power company to enter into a 40-year contract with the American aluminum company Alcoa to supply hydroelectric power for a new smelter, those who had been dreaming of some-thing like this for decades jumped at it and never looked back. Iceland may at the moment be one of the world’s richest countries, with a 99 percent literacy rate and long life expectancy. But the proj-ect’s advocates, some of them getting on in years, were more emotionally attuned to the country’s century upon century of want, hardship, and colonial servitude to Denmark, which officially had ended only in 1944 and whose psychological imprint remained relatively fresh. For the longest time, life here had meant little more than a sod hut, dark all winter, cold, no hope, children dying left and right, earthquakes, plagues, starvation, volcanoes erupting and destroying all vegeta-tion and livestock, all spirit—a world revolving almost entirely around the welfare of one’s sheep and, later, on how good the cod catch was. In the outlying regions, it still largely does. Ostensibly, the Alcoa project was intended to save one of these dying regions—the remote and sparsely populated east—where the way of life had steadily declined to a point of desperation and gloom. After fishing quotas were imposed in the early 1980s to protect fish stocks, many indi-vidual boat owners sold their allotments or gave them away, fishing rights ended up mostly in the hands of a few companies, and small fishermen were virtually wiped out. Technological advances drained away even more jobs previously done by human hands, and the people were seeing every-thing they had worked for all their lives turn up worthless and their children move away. With the old way of life doomed, aluminum projects like this one had come to be perceived, wisely or not, as a last chance. “Smelter or death.” The contract with Alcoa would infuse the re-gion with foreign capital, an estimated 400 jobs, and spin-off service industries. It also was a way for Iceland to develop expertise that potentially could be sold to the rest of the world; diversify an economy historically dependent on fish; and, in an appealing display of Icelandic can-do verve, perhaps even protect all of Iceland, once and for all, from the unpredictability of life itself.

“We have to live,” Halldór Ásgrímsson said in his sad, sonorous voice. Halldór, a former prime minister and longtime member of parliament from the region, was a driving force behind the project. “We have a right to live.” 27. According to the passage, most Icelanders view land as something of A. environmental value. B. commercial value. C. potential value for tourism. D. great value for livelihood. 28. What is Iceland’s old-aged advocates’ feeling towards the Alcoa project? A. Iceland is wealthy enough to reject the project. B. The project would lower life expectancy. C. The project would cause environmental problems. D. The project symbolizes and end to the colonial legacies. 29. The disappearance of the old way of life was due to all the following EXCEPT A. fewer fishing companies. B. fewer jobs available. C. migration of young people. D. impostion of fishing quotas. 30. The 4 paragraph in the passage A. sums up the main points of the passage. B. starts to discuss an entirely new point. C. elaborates on the last part of the 3 paragraph. D. continues to depict the bleak economic situation. PART III GENERAL KNOWLEDGE (10 MIN) There are ten multiple-choice questions in this section. Choose the best answer to each question. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET TWO. 31. Which of the following statements in INCORRECT? A. The British constitution includes the Magna Carta of 1215.

B. The British constitution includes Parliamentary acts. C. The British constitution includes decisions made by courts of law. D. The British constitution includes one single written constitution. 32. The first city ever founded in Canada is A. Quebec. B. Vancouver. C. Toronto. D. Montreal. 33. When did the Australian Federation officially come into being? A. 1770. B. 1788. C. 1900. D. 1901. 34. The Emancipation Proclamation to end the slavery plantation system in the South of the U.S. was issued by A. Abraham Lincoln. B. Thomas Paine. C. George Washington. D. Thomas Jefferson. 35. ________ is best known for the technique of dramatic monologue in his poems.. A. Will Blake B. W.B. Yeats C. Robert Browning D. William Wordsworth 36. The Financier is written by

A. Mark Twain. B. Henry James. C. William Faulkner. D. Theodore Dreiser. 37. In literature a story in verse or prose with a double meaning is defined as A. allegory. B. sonnet. C. blank verse. D. rhyme. 38. ________ refers to the learning and development of a language. A. Language acquisition B. Language comprehension C. Language production D. Language instruction 39. The word “ Motel” comes from “motor + hotel”. This is an example of ________ in morphology. A. backformation B. conversion C. blending D. acronym 40. Language is t tool of communication. The symbol “ Highway Closed” on a highway serves A. an expressive function. B. an informative function. C. a performative function. D. a persuasive function. Part IV Proofreading & Error Correction (15 min)

The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way: For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line. mark the position of the missing word with a "∧" sign and write the word you For a missing word, believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line. For a unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/" and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line. EXAMPLE When ∧ art museum wants a new exhibit, 大1家 it never buys things in finished form and hangs ╱ them on the wall. When a natural history ________ an museum wants an exhibition, it must often build it. 大2家 ________ never 大3家 ________ exhibit So far as we can tell, all human languages are equally complete and perfect as instruments of communication: that is, every language appears to be well equipped as any other to say the things their speakers want to say. There may or may not be appropriate to talk about primitive peoples or cultures, but that is another matter. Certainly, not all groups of people are equally competent in nuclear physics or psychology or the cultivation of rice or the engraving of Benares brass. Whereas this is not the fault of their language. The Eskimos can speak about snow with a great deal more precision and subtlety than we can in English, but this is not because the Eskimo language (one of those sometimes miscalled 'primitive') is inherently more precise and subtle than English. This example does not come to light a defect in English, a show of unexpected 'primitiveness'. The position is simply and obviously that the Eskimos and the English live in similar environments. The English language will be just as rich in terms for similar kinds of snow, presumably, if the environments in which English was habitually used made such distinction as important. Similarly, we have no reason to doubt that the Eskimo language could be as precise and subtle on the subject of motor manufacture or cricket if these topics formed the part of the Eskimos' life. For obvious historical reasons, Englishmen in the nineteenth century could not talk about motorcars with the minute discrimination which is possible today: cars were not a part of their culture. But they had a host of terms for horse-drawn vehicles which send us, puzzled, to a historical dictionary when we are reading Scott or Dickens. How many of us could distinguish between a chaise, a landau, a victoria, a brougham, a coupe, a gig, a diligence, a whisky, a calash, a tilbury, a

大1家 大2家 大3家


大5家 大6家 大7家 大8家 大9家


carriole, a phaeton, and a clarence ?



Translate the underlined part of the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE. 朋友关系的存续是以相互尊重为前提的, 容不得半点强求、干涉和控制。朋友之间, 情趣相投、脾 气对味则合、则交; 反之, 则离、则绝。朋友之间再熟悉, 再亲密, 也不能随便过头,不恭不敬。不然, 默契和平衡将被打破, 友好关系将不复存在。每个人都希望拥有自己的私密空间,朋友之间过于随便, 就容易侵入这片禁区,从而引起冲突,造成隔阂。待友不敬,或许只是一件小事,却可能已埋下了破坏 性的种子。维持朋友亲密关系的最好办法是往来有节,互不干涉。 SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE

Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May; that it was Easter Sunday, and as yet very early in the morning. I was standing at the door of my own cottage. Right before me lay the very scene which could really be commanded from that situation, but exalted, as was usual, and solemnized by the power of dreams. There were the same mountains, and the same lovely valley at their feet; but the mountains were raised to more than Alpine height, and there was interspace far larger between them of meadows and forest lawns; the hedges were rich with white roses; and no living creature was to be seen except that in the green churchyard there were cattle tranquilly reposing upon the graves, and particularly round about the grave of a child whom I had once tenderly loved, just as I had really seen them, a little before sunrise in the same summer, when that child died. PART VI WRITING (45 MIN)

Recently newspapers have reported that officials in a little-known mountainous area near Guiyang, Guizhou Province wanted to turn the area into a “central business district” for Guiyang and invited a foreign design company to give it a n entirely new look. The design company came up with a blueprint for unconventional, super-futuristic buildings. Tis triggered off different responses. Some appreciated the bold innovation of the design, but others held that it failed to reflect regional characteristics or local cultural heritage. What is your view on this? Write an essay of about 400 words. You should supply an appropriate title for your essay. In the first part of your writing you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary. Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks. Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.


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