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世界组织简介(英文)

时间:2011-03-29


1.WTO(world trade center) The World Trade Organization is the international system for negotiating trade issues. The W-T-O was established in nineteen-ninety-five. But its roots go back to an agreement made soon after World War Two. Twenty-three nations approved the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, or GATT(关贸总协定 in 关贸总协定) 关贸总协定 nineteen-forty-seven. Three years earlier, the International Monetary Conference had taken place in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire. Negotiators succeeded in planning two important financial organizations. These are the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. But the negotiators could not agree on a proposed organization for international trade. GATT was meant to be temporary. Trade negotiations under GATT were carried out in a series of talks, called rounds. The first round produced cuts in import taxes on one fifth of world trade. he nations that took part did not agree on everything. But they did agree on a new, permanent system to settle disputes. In April of nineteen-ninety-four, ministers of most of the one-hundred-twenty-three countries signed an agreement. This established the World Trade Organization. The W-T-O has replaced the old GATT. But those first agreements remain the basis of international trade law. Next week -- how the W-T-O operates.

2.WB(WORLD BANK) The World Bank is not a normal bank. It is not a place where individuals borrow money. The Bank does loan money but not in the exact same way as a local bank. The World Bank is one of the largest suppliers of development assistance . Its main goal is to improve living conditions for poor people throughout the world. Last year, it provided more than seventeen-thousand-million dollars in loans to developing countries to help end poverty. The money went to efforts like debt reduction for some of the poorest countries in the world. That program was designed to increase debt assistance and provide it faster than in the past. As a result, twenty-three countries received debt assistance last year as compared to seven countries the year before. The World Bank does more than just provide loans, however. It believes that continued poverty reduction comes from

investing in the people of a country -- especially through education and health programs. World Bank President James Wolfen sohn announced one such program earlier this week at the organization's yearly spring meeting in Washington. The "Education for All" plan is aimed at getting all children between the ages of five and eleven into early education. The World Bank plans to establish the program soon in ten countries. Bank leaders will choose countries that have strong education reform plans but no money to establish them.

3.IMF(International Monetary Fund) An international organization established in 1945 that aims to promote international trade and monetary cooperation and the stabilization of exchange rates. Member countries contribute in gold and in their own currencies to provide a reserve on which they may draw to meet foreign obligations during periods of deficit in their international balance of payments. Payments are usually made on the basis of the country's acceptance of stipulated measures for economic correction, which often entail cuts in public expenditure and an increased cost of living, and have frequently caused controversy. It is affiliated with the United Nations, with headquarters in Washington, DC


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