THE FREEDOM GIVERS
1.Use your own words to explain the word “hero”?
2.Who is your hero in your mind?
3.What are the qualities to be a good hero?
Pre-reading Tasks) ? Global-reading Tasks ? While-reading Tasks ? After-reading Tasks
Text A THE FREEDOM GIVERS
? Questions 1.What’s the freedom? Do you enjoy it in this society? 2.In your opinion, is a complete freedom a right thing?
Read the introductory part of the text and think about the following questions.
2004 a center in honor of the “underground railroad” opens in Cincinnati. The railroad was unusual. It sold no tickets and had no trains. Yet it carried thousands of passengers to the destination of their dreams.
? 1. What is an underground railroad in the normal sense? ? 2. What is this underground railroad special for? ? 3. Can you imagine what this railroad was built for? ? 4. What probably are the dreams of the passengers? ? 5. What is the conductor of the Underground Railroad? ? 6. What is the station of the Underground Railroad? ? 7.What are the passengers of the Underground Railroad?
? Map Reading
? Read the following three maps and answer the following questions.
? Map Reading
Alabama Alaska Arizona
Idaho Illinois Indiana
Tennessee Texas Utah
Mississippi North Dakota
Connecticut Louisiana Delaware Florida Maine
Pennsylvania West Virginia Island Wisconsin
New Hampshire Rhode
Maryland New Jersey South Carolina Wyoming
Georgia MassachusettsNew Mexico South Dakota Coming Soon ! Hawaii
Home Page Game Directions
? 1619 -- Slaves in Virginia Africans brought to Jamestown are the first slaves imported into Britain’s North American colonies.
? 1705 -- Slaves as Property Describing slaves as real estate, Virginia lawmakers allow owners to bequeath their slaves. The same law allowed masters to “kill and destroy” runaways. ? 1775 -- American Revolution Begins Battles at the Massachusetts towns of Lexington and Concord on April 19 spark the war for American independence from Britain.
? 1776 -- Declaration of Independence The Continental Congress asserts “that these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States”. ? 1783 -- American Revolution Ends Britain and the infant United States sign the Peace of Paris treaty. ? 1808 -- United States Bans Slave Trade Importing African slaves is outlawed, but smuggling continues. ? 1860 -- Abraham Lincoln Elected Abraham Lincoln of Illinois becomes the first Republican to win the United States Presidency.
? 1861~1865 -- United States Civil War Four years of brutal conflict claim 623,000 lives. ? 1863 -- Emancipation Proclamation President Abraham Lincoln decrees that all slaves in Rebel territory are free on January 1, 1863. ? 1865 -- Slavery Abolished The 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution outlaws slavery.
The Underground Railroad was not underground. Because escaping slaves and the people who helped them were technically breaking the law, they had to stay out of sight. They went “underground” in terms of concealing their actions.
Sometimes they even hid in unusual places
? Many clever and creative ideas helped slaves during their escape. When abolitionist (废奴主义者) John Fairfield needed to sneak (偷偷摸摸地进行) 28 slaves over the roads near Cincinnati, he hired a hearse (灵车) and disguised the group as a funeral procession. ? Henry “Box” Brown, a slave, had himself shipped from Richmond to Philadelphia in a wooden box
Martin Luther King
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Cultural Notes---Christian （1）
? Quaker(贵格会教徒/公谊会教徒): any member
of the Society of Friends(公谊会), a religious group established in England in the 1650s by George fox. Quakers worship Christ without any formal ceremony or fixed beliefs, and their meeting often involve silent thought or prayer. They are strongly opposed to violence and war, and are active in education and charity work.
? Methodist( 卫理公会派教徒，循道宗 信徒): a member of the Methodist
Church, the largest of the Protestant (新 教徒) Free Churches in Britain and the US. It emphasized the importance of moral issues, both personal and social.
? Moses(摩西): one of the characters in
the Bible, who led the Jewish people out of the slavery in Egypt and to the Promised Land (福地，乐土).
? Bethlehem(柏利恒): a famous old
city in Palestine (巴勒斯坦) and a holy city(圣地) for Christians.
1. Part Division 2.Text Analysis 3.New words Explanation (惯用法, 扩展词汇,例句)
Part one (paras 1-5)
? Main idea ? It is high time to honor the heroes who helped liberate slaves by forging the Underground Railroad in the early civil-rights struggles in America.
Part two ( paras 6-23)
? Main idea ? By citing examples the author praises the exploits of civil-rights heroes who helped slaves travel the Underground Railroad to freedom.
Text Analysis ? In this part, the author tells the stories of three civil-rights heroes. Who are they? Give the main idea of each story.
? The three stories are chosen because they are representative of all participants in this movement. ? In this way the author achieve coherence of the text.
1.After winning his own freedom from slavery, John Parker helped other slaves to escape north to Canada to get freedom.(lines32—57) 2.Supported by a strong religious conviction, the white man Levi Coffin helped black slaves to escape at huge risk.(58---86) 3. By traveling the Underground Railroad, Josiah Henson reached his destination and became free at last(87—114)
Direct speech is more convincing than indirect speech, especially when it comes to expressing personal beliefs. On other occasion, direct speech makes a story more vivid.
1.breeze: n. a gentle wind
a cool, refreshing breeze All of the following words are related to wind. Can you match them with their definitions?
a strong, abrupt rush of wind a very strong wind
hurricane a severe tropical cyclone, usu.
involving heavy rains
tornado a rotating column of air
? 2. CF: slender, thin & slim ? 这几个词都有细小、瘦弱之意。 ? slender 主要表示苗条之瘦，往往含有瘦得好看 或匀称的意思。例如： ? Film actress Zhang Ziyi is a slender woman. ? 电影演员章子怡身材苗条。 ? thin 表示人或物的直径与长度的比例较小。例 如：
People usually get thinner after an illness. ? 生病后，人们通常变得瘦一些。
slim 用于指人与动物时，其含义与slender相同， 但在引申意义上却侧重于贫乏和不足状态。例 如：
As a slim boy, he has now filled out.
To tell you the truth, your chances to pass the exam are too slim. 实话告诉你，你考试过关的希望实在是太小了。
3. be confident that
? 麦克儿相信他能 被哈佛大学录取. ? Michael was confident that he would be enrolled by Harvard University.
be confident of
? 足球队非常有 信心能赢得这 场重要的比赛. ? The soccer team is quite confident of being able to win this important game.
be confident about
? 对机器越熟悉,对使用它就越有 信心. ? The more familiar you are with this machine, the more confident you will be about using it.
? 4. racial: adj. relating to a person’s race,
or to different races of people 种族的
There is a serious racial conflict in that African country. ? 他是种族歧视的牺牲者。 ? He was a victim of racial discrimination. ? racialist 种族主义者
5. principle: a rule or standard,
especially of good behavior 原则
against one’s principle
as a matter of principle
adhere to one’s principles 抛弃原则
abandon one’s principles
1 ) create by means of much hard work （靠艰苦工作）建立
他们和法国共产党建立了联系。 They forged links with the French Communist Party.
2) make a forgery or counterfeit 伪造，假 冒
He got the money dishonestly, by forging his brother’s signature on a check. 伪造签名
forge a signature
7. liberate: vt. set free 解放
? Pattern: ? liberate sb./sth. from sth.
liberate people from poverty
解除心中偏见 ? liberate the mind from prejudice ? n. Liberation ? n. Liberty The Statue of Liberty
8. authorize: vt. give approval or
permission for (sth.); give authority to 批准，委托 ? 主任允许我们在实验室工作。 The director authorized us to work in the laboratory.
Authorize Money to do sth
? 中央政府批准拨款200亿 美元建造新的大坝用来 水力发电.
? The central government authorized $200 billion to construct new dams to generate hydroelectric power. ?
Be Authorized to do sth
? 他被授权发表下列声明 ? He was authorized to issue the following statement. ? an authorized agent ? 指定的代理人.
? have authority over… ? 对…有权利 ? supreme in authority ? 权利无上的 ? by the authority of ? 蒙…的许可 ? an academic authority ? 学术权威
authorities 当局，官方 ? authorities concerned ? 有关当局 ? the military authorities ? 军事当局
? 1. n. brave or adventurous deed or action
? （usu. pl) 功绩，业绩
sing sb.’s exploits ? 他的战功使我感到惊异。 His military exploits amazed me.
2. vt. （读音发生变化）
1） employ to the greatest possible advantage 开 发，利用，开采
充分发挥某人的才能 exploit one’s talents to exploit the oil under the sea 2) 剥削 这家公司用工时长、工资低的方法来剥削工人。 The company exploited its workers with long hours and low pay. ? n. exploitation
10. Be intent on sth/ doing sth: be eager and determined to ( do sth.)
? 他在学业上很专心 ? He’s intent on his studies. ? 他一心一意要去法国. ? He is intent on going to France.
? 11. peer: look closely or carefully , esp.
as if unable to see well ( followed by at/ through/ into, etc.) 凝视，盯着看 e.g. She peered through the mist, trying to find the right path. He peered at me over the top of his glasses. He peered into his parents’ room and found they were quarrelling. Short-sighted people often peer at others when they are wearing no glasses. ? 近视眼的人不戴眼镜时常常眯着眼看人。
? peer, gaze & stare ? 这三个词都是动词，都有注视、凝视之意。 ? peer 通常指半闭着眼睛看，并伴随着向前移动， 含有好奇地看或难以看清的意味。
The sleepy father got up and peered through a crack in the door to see who knocked at the door. 还未睡醒的父亲起了床，透过门缝眯着眼看是谁 在敲门。 ? gaze 指持久不停地看，通常有惊奇、羡慕、感 叹等含义。例如： ? All of us gazed at the beautiful view in the distance
? stare指出于好奇、惊讶、茫然或赞叹等原 因而瞪大眼睛长时间、直接地注视。例 如 The woman stared at the stranger in astonishment. ? 那个女人吃惊地盯着陌生人。 ? It is very impolite to stare at other people. 死死盯着他人是极不礼貌的。
12. On the side
? 一些老师不得 不找做兼职挣 钱的途径. ? Some teachers have to find ways of making some money on the side.
? 他虽有妻室，但暗地里还有一个 女朋友。 He’s married but he has a girlfriend on the side.
13. conviction: n. firm opinion or belief 坚
She had a firm conviction that she was right.
a lifelong conviction 终身的信仰 political conviction 政治信念 strengthen/deepen one’s conviction that… 增强/加深某人的信念…
14. Close in on/around
? 当苏联军队包围柏林 时,希特勒自杀了.
? Hitler committed suicide as Soviet forces were closing in on Berlin.
15. Impose fines on … ? 当地政府对于那些将未处理的 污水倒入河里的工厂要克以罚 金. ? The local government tried to impose fines on the factories which poured untreated waste into the river. ? impose duties/taxes on sth. 对… 强加征税
Impose sth. on sb.
? I wouldn’t want to impose my religious conviction on anyone.
? 对于父母而言将自己的兴趣强加于孩子 是不明智的.
? It may not be wise for parents to impose their own interests on their children.
?16. make the best of: accept
an unsatisfactory situation cheerful and try to manage as well as you can （对不满意的条件）欣然接受； 充
Make the best of
? 我知道天气又冷又下 雨,但我们现在到这 儿了,就认命吧!
? I know it’s cold and raining but we’re here now, so let’s just make the best of it.
Make the best of
? 村子里的生活条件很 差,但我们只能认命 了.
? The living conditions in the village were very poor, but we had to make the best of it.
? 17 .disguise: 1) give sb./ sth. a false
appearance假扮，伪装 pattern: disguise sb./ sth. as… e.g. 木兰女扮男装，所以她可以在战场上战 斗。 Mulan disguised herself as a man so she could fight on the battlefield. He disguised himself as a woman. .
18. Be at risk of…
? 据报道西部的一些地 区正面临着沙漠化的 极大危险.
? It is reported that some areas in the west are at high risk of desertification.
? take a risk /take risks ? at all risks / at any risk 无论冒什 么危险；无论如何
19 starve: vt. cause to suffer or die from
great hunger ( 使）挨饿,（使）饿死 They tried to starve the army into surrender. starvation n. pattern:
starve for=be starved of 渴望，急需
偏远地区辍学的儿童渴望上学。 The drop-out children in the remote area starve for schooling.
? 20. in the eyes of: in the opinion of , in
one’s opinion e.g. In the eyes of students, Richard is a sensible and reliable teacher. In the eye of my parents, I’m still a young person although I am already in my thirties. In her father’s eye, she could do no wrong.
? 21. pass for:
appear like; be accepted or look upon as ( same as pass as) 看上去像；被看作，被当作 ? 他英语讲的如此好以至于被当作是美国 人. ? He speaks American English well enough to pass for an American. ? 他被认为是个医生。
He passes for a doctor. ? 他被误认为是个有学问的人。
He passes for a learned man.
? I had traveled here to Henson’s last home -now a……..lines15 . Why was Henson called an AfricanAmerican Moses? Henson, a black who lived in America, helped other blacks escape from the US.
? Josiah Henson is but one name on a long……..(lines21---23)
? What is the part of speech of but in this sentence? ? And what does but mean? Here but is an adverb, which means “only”.
? Eventually he saved enough money working at this trade on the side to buy his freedom(lines40) Translate the sentence into Chinese.
? 后来他终于靠这门手艺攒够钱赎回了自 由。
In Kentucky, where he was now headed, there was a $1000 reward for his capture, dead or alive. (lines44)
Paraphrase the sentence.
In Kentucky, anyone who captured him, no matter he was dead or alive, would be rewarded $1000 and now he was going to Kentucky.
? There was room for all but two (lines50) What does but mean? What is the part of speech of but in this sentence? Here but is an preposition, which means “except”.
? The others made it to the Ohio shore, where Parker hurriedly arranged for a wagon to take them……(lines54)
1. What does made it mean? Make it means “succeed in doing something”. Here made it means “arrived (at the Ohio shore)”.
2. What does leg mean?
Leg means “a stage of a journey or course”. For example, the last leg of the flight (飞行 中的最后一段路程).
Henson worked diligently and rose far in his owner’s regard……(line 92)
Paraphrase “rose far in his owner’s regard”.
He was regarded highly by his owner.
After-reading--Useful expressions ? 1.微风轻拂 ? A gentle breeze sweeps… ? 2.前往 ? Walk toward ? 3.打算让某人做某事 ? Intend sb to do sth ? 4. 不仅仅 ? Be more than
? 5.对某人的挚爱 ? Devotion to sb ? 6.家庭荣誉 ? Family honor ? 7.具有讽刺意义的是 ? ironically ? 8.支持… ? Stand up for … ? 9.奋起力争 ? Stand up for oneself
? 10.有原则的人 ? A man of principle
? 11.历史遗迹 ? Historic site ? 12.在许多方面 ? In many ways ? 13.一个更繁重的使命 ? A larger mission ? 14.勇敢的男女们 ? Courageous men and women
? 15.建立地下铁路 ? Forge the Underground Railroad ? 16.秘密网络 ? A secret web ? 17.解放奴隶 ? Liberate slaves ? 18.批准/委托 ? authorize
? 19.民权斗争 ? Civil-rights struggle ? 20.定与/被安排(在某时) ? Be scheduled to ? 21.坚决做某事 ? Be intent on doing sth
? 1.铸铁 ? Iron molding ? 2.做兼职 ? On the side ? 3.阴冷的夜晚 ? Chilly night ? 4.丧魂落魄 ? Be frozen with fear
? 5.团团围住 ? Close in around ? 6.在某人有生之年 ? Over the course of one’s life ? 7.被…激发 ? Be motivated by… ? 8.被…感召 ? Be driven by… ? 9.宗教信仰 ? Religious convictions
? Fee the hungry and clothe the naked ? 11.得到庇护 ? Find refuge ? 12.课以罚金 ? Impose a fine ? 13.短期监禁 ? A brief jail sentence ? 14.至于
? As for
? 15.在夜色掩护下 ? Under the cover of night ? 16.把某人装扮成… ? Disguise…as… ? 17.出殡队伍 ? Funeral procession
? 18.首选终点站 ? Primary destination
? 19.广阔的未开发的土地 ? Vast virgin land ? 20.遭毒打 ? Be beaten harshly ? 21.非常认命 ? Make the best of one’s lot ? 22.深受某人器重 ? Rise far in one’s regard/opinion
? 23.强迫某人做某事 ? Compel sb to do sth ? 24.冒极大的危险 ? At huge risk ? 25.和…取得联系 ? Make contact with… ? 26.扑倒在地 ? Throw oneself on the ground
? 27.在…看来 ? In the eyes of… ? 28.被看做… ? Pass for
? 1.slender woman/figure/book/chance/hands ? 苗条的女人/身材/薄书/微小的机会/ 纤细的手 ? 2.racial pride/customs/origin/type/prejudice /discrimination ? 种族优越感/种族起源/种族类型/种 族偏见/种族歧视
? 3.historic meeting with../historic buildings ? 历史上与…重要的会见/有历史性的 建筑 ? Historical people ? 历史人物 ? Historical documents ? 历史文献 ? 4.the site of the new skyscraper ? 新大楼的位置
? Archaeological sites ? 考古现场 ? Site of the battle ? 战场 ? 5.underground passage/movement/organization ? 地下人行道/地下活动/组织 ? 6.daring/wartime exploits ? 英勇事迹/战时功绩
Sentences for appreciation
? Line 6 ? He was confident that the Creator intended all men to be created equal. And he never gave up struggling for the freedom. ? 他坚信上帝要所有人生来平等.他从来没 有停止过争取这一自由权利的斗争.
Sentences for appreciation
? Line29 ? It’s about time. For the heroes of the Underground Railroad remain too little remembered, their exploits still largely unsung. ? 真是该建立这样一个中心的时候了. 因为地下铁路的英雄们依然默默无 闻,他们的业绩依然少人颂扬.