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高考调研选修八课时作业4

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课时作业(四)
Ⅰ.单词拼写 1. The brothers ________(不同)widely in their tastes. 2. I’d like to come, too, if you have no ________(反对). 3. Scientists are hoping for a ________(突破)in the search for a c

ure for cancer. 4. Radio is an important communication ________(媒介)in many countries. 5. They spent about a year ________(总共)touring the four countries. 6.Mary was disappointed to see her homework returned with a mass of ________ (改 正)in red ink. 7. Parents are responsible for giving their children ________(道德)guidance. 8. The question is quite s________, while that one is much more complicated. 9. Smoking is f________ in public places. 10. He always managed to ________(得到)what he wanted. 答案 1. differ 2. objection 3. breakthrough 4. medium 5. altogether 6. correction 7. moral 8. straightforward 9. forbidden 10. obtain Ⅱ.单项填空 1. In the end, the scientist’s hard work and patience ________ with a breakthrough last year. A. paid back B. paid off C. paid for D. paid up 答案 B 解析 pay up“付清” ;pay off“得到好结果;取得成功” ;pay back“还钱;偿 还” ;pay for“支付” 。结合语境可知 B 项为最佳选项。 2. My brother suggested he and I be taken to an amusement park this weekend, and we were glad to know that our busy parents didn’t ________ to the plan. A. object B. refer C. listen D. agree 答案 A 解析 句意:我哥哥建议这个周末带我们去游乐园;我们很高兴,因为忙碌的父 母没有反对这个计划。 object to “反对” ; refer to “指; 涉及; 提到” ; listen to “听” ; agree to“同意” 。 3. As we all know, humans differ from other animals ________ their ability to speak. A. on B. from C. by D. in 答案 D 解析 句中表示的是“人类与其它动物在语言能力上有差异” ,故用 differ in ..., 表示“在??方面不同” 。 4. I am ________ your suggestion ________ we should spend more time on this project. A. in favor of; which B. in honor of; that C. in favor of; that D. in honor of; which 答案 C 解析 句意:我很赞成你的建议那就是我们应该在这个工程上花费更多的时间。

in favor of“赞成” ;in honor of “向??表示敬意;为纪念??” 。第二个空为 that 引导的同位语从句。 5. Clinical evidence began to ________, suggesting that the new drugs had a wider range of useful activities than had been predicted from experiments in animals. A. operate B. strengthen C. approve D. accumulate 答案 D 解析 句意: 临床证据在不断增加,表明这种新药的用途比先前根据动物实验所 预测的用途更广泛。operate“操作” ;strengthen“加强;强化” ;approve“赞成; 同意” ;accumulate“积累;聚积” 。 6. As is well known, everyone is forbidden ________ in buses, regardless of what they are. A. to smoke B. smoking C. to be smoking D. to smoking 答案 A 解析 句意:众所周知,无论是谁,在公共汽车上都是禁止吸烟的。这里考查的 是 forbid sb. to do sth. 的被动语态。 7. The new chairman was quite familiar with the ________ for conducting a meeting. A. procedure B. problem C. question D. people 答案 A 解析 procedure“程序;流程” ,符合题意。problem“问题;毛病” ;question“问 题” ;people“人们” 。 8. The way he did it was different ________ we were used to. A. in which B. in what C. from what D. from which 答案 C 解析 考查介词的选择和宾语从句。句意:他做这件事的方式和我们以前所习惯 的方式不同。 “与??不同”用 be different from ...结构,what 引导宾语从句,并 在从句中作宾语。 9. If you are always ________ by such kind of failures, you will never succeed. A. turned down B. cast down C. made down D. put down 答案 B 解析 句意:如果你一直因为这种失败而沮丧,你将永远不会成功。cast down “使沮丧;使不愉快” ;turn down“关小(声音等);拒绝” ;put down“记下;写 下” 。 10. To our joy, there are so many ________ in science and technology all over the world in recent years. A. discovery B. breakthroughs C. findings D. invention 答案 B 解析 discovery “发现” ; invention “发明” , 都符合句意, 但须用复数形式。 finding 有两种含义,一是指别人丢掉后的“发现物;拾得物” ;二是其复数形式还有一

特别含义,指“(委员会等的)调查结果;报告” ,不合句意。breakthrough“突破” 。 Ⅲ.阅读理解

Everyone becomes a little more forgetful as they get older, but men’s minds decline more than women’s, according to the results of a worldwide survey. Certain differences seem to be inherent in male and female brains: men are better at dealing with mental images useful in mathematical reasoning and spatial (三维空 间) skills, while women tend to excel (擅长) at recalling information from their brain’s files helpful with language skills and remembering the locations of objects. Many studies have looked for a connection between sex and the amount of mental decline people experience as they age, but the results have been mixed. Some studies found more age-related decline in men than in women, while others saw the opposite or even no relationship at all between sex and mental decline. Those results could be improper because the studies involved older people, and women live longer than men. The men tested are the survivors, “so they’ re the ones that may not have shown such cognitive (认知的) decline,”said study team leader Elizabeth of the University of Warwick in England. People surveyed completed four tasks that tested sex-related cognitive skills: matching an object to its rotated (旋转的) form, matching lines shown from the same angle, typing as many words in a particular category as possible in the given time, e.g. “objects usually colored gray” , and recalling the location of objects in a line drawing. The first two were tasks at which men usually excel; the latter are typically dominated by women. Within each age group studied, men and women performed better in their separate categories on average. And though performance declined with age for both sexes, women showed obviously less decline than men overall. 1. The underlined word “inherent” in the second paragraph means ________. A. original B. native C. natural D. absolute 2. Which of the following tasks are men better at? A. Matching lines shown from the same angle. B. Typing as many words in a particular category as possible. C. Recalling the location of objects in a line drawing. D. Recalling information from their brain’s files. 3. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the passage? A. Men excel at typing words in a particular category in the given time. B. Women excel at dealing with mathematic problems. C. Men do better than women when it comes to learning English. D. Women stand out at remembering people’s names. 4. What important factor affects the correctness of the research results? A. People tested come from all over the world. B. Men live longer than women. C. Not enough old men were tested.

D. The researchers got their results mixed. 5. The author aims to tell us that ________. A. the survey on human’s mind decline was done recently B. men’s minds decline more with age C. everyone becomes a little more forgetful as they get older D. women’s minds perform better than men’s 答案与解析 【文章大意】 随着年龄的增长人的记忆力会衰退,研究表明男性记忆随年 龄衰退比女性更快。 1. 答案 C 解析 词义猜测题。original 意为“原始的” ;native 意为“本土的” ;absolute 意 为“绝对的” 。根据第二段 men are better at dealing with mental images useful in mathematical reasoning and spatial skills, while women tend to excel at recalling information from their brain’s files helpful with language skills and remembering the locations of objects 可知, 男女大脑的构造决定男性擅长处理三维空间, 女性擅长 记忆,所以 inherent 的意思应该相当于“天生的” ,故选 C 项。 2. 答案 A 解析 推理判断题。根据第二段可知,男性大脑构造决定其擅长处理三维空间, A 项是这种说法的一个例子,B,C,D 三项都是女性擅长记忆的例子。 3. 答案 D 解析 细节理解题。根据第二段中的 ... while women tend to excel at recalling information from their brain’s files helpful ...可知,女性擅长记忆,故选 D 项。 4. 答案 C 解析 细节理解题。 根据第四段第二、 三句 Those results could be improper because the studies involved older people, and women live longer than men. The men tested are the survivors ...可知, 老年人中女性比男性寿命长, survivor 本意是 “幸存者” , 故选 C 项。 5. 答案 B 解析 写作目的题。文章说的是大脑记忆力减退的事情,故 B 项正确。A 项只 是说相关调查最近完成,偏离文章主旨,故排除;C,D 项文中没提到,故排除。

Sorry to say, our brains naturally start slowing down at the cruelly young age of 30 (yes, 30). It used to be thought that this couldn’t be helped, but a lot of new studies show that people of any age can train their brains to be faster and, in effect, younger. “Your brain is a learning machine,” says Michael Merzenich, PhD, a neuroscientist (神经系统专家) at the University of California, San Francisco. Given the right tools, we can train our brains to act like they did when we were younger. All that’s required is hard practice: exercises for the mind. Merzenich has developed a computerbased training to speed up how the brain processes information. Since much of the data we receive comes through speech, the Brain Fitness Program works with language and hearing to improve both speed and accuracy. Over the course of your training, the program starts asking you to distinguish sounds (between “dog” and “bog,” for instance) at an increasingly faster

rate. It’s a bit like a tennis instructor, says Merzenich, shooting balls at you faster and faster over the course of the summer to keep you challenged. Though you may have started out slow, by efforts you’re pretty nimble. The biggest finding in brain research in the last ten years is that the brain at any age is highly adaptable, or “plastic” as neurologists put it. If you ask your brain to learn, it will learn. And it may speed up in the process. To keep your brain young and supple, you can purchase software like Merzenich’ s, or you can do one of a million new activities that challenge and excite you:playing PingPong or contract bridge, doing jigsaw puzzles, learning a new language, or the tango, taking accordion lessons, building a kit airplane, mastering bonsai technique, discovering the subtleties of beer brewing and, sure, relearning differential calculus. “Anything that closely attracts your focus and is strongly rewarding,” says Merzenich, “will kick your brain into learning style and necessarily acquire it.” For his part, Merzenich, 64, has “4,000 hobbies,” including a wood shop and a vineyard (葡萄园). 1. What’s the author’s purpose to write this passage? A. To say that our brains start slowing down at the age of 30. B. To introduce a computerbased training. C. To tell us that our brains can be trained faster and younger. D. To tell us that the brain is highly adaptable. 2. Which of the following statements is TRUE according to this passage? A. Nothing can help to prevent our brain from slowing down. B. We can train our brains to remain young by any tools. C. Our brain is a learning machine that needs practice. D. Hard practice is needed to keep our body fit. 3. Brain Fitness Program can help ________. A. to improve our speech B. to make our brains process information fast and accurately C. to distinguish sounds from information D. to shoot balls faster and faster 4. The activities referred to in the 4th paragraph can NOT ________. A. challenge and excite you B. keep your brain young and supple C. attract your focus D. help you buy software 5. This passage is probably selected from ________. A. a popular science book B. a fantasy C. an interview D. a science fiction 答案与解析 【文章大意】 一般情况下,人的大脑从三十岁开始就逐渐衰老。但新的研 究发现:任何年龄段的人可以经过大脑训练使其更年轻,反应更敏捷。文章就如 何对大脑进行训练作了简单介绍。 1. 答案 C 解析 细节理解题。根据第一段中的... but a lot of new studies show that people of any age can train their brains to be faster and, in effect, younger.可知,人的大脑可以 经过训练而更敏捷,更年轻。下文主要围绕此话题进行说明,故 C 项正确。

2. 答案 C 解析 细节理解题。根据第一段迈克尔·莫山尼奇所言 Your brain is a learning machine 及 Given the right tools, we can train our brains to act like they did when we were younger. All that’s required is hard practice.可知,C 项正确。 3. 答案 B 解析 细节理解题。根据第二段中的 ... the Brain Fitness Program works with language and hearing to improve both speed and accuracy.可知,B 项正确。 4. 答案 D 解析 细节理解题。根据第四段 To keep your brain young and supple, ... a million new activities that challenge and excite you 及最后一段中的 Anything that closely attracts your focus ... 可知,D 项符合题意。 5. 答案 A 解析 推理判断题。根据文章所述内容可知,本文节选自大众科学类的读物,故 A 项正确。 Ⅳ.翻译句子 1. 中国北方出现严重旱情的消息使我们很沮丧。(cast down) _______________________________________________ 2. 当红灯亮时,行人禁止穿越马路。(forbid) _______________________________________________ 3. 很多人反对这种产品在电视上做广告。(object to) _______________________________________________ 4. 所有那几周的学习都会在考试的时候见成效。(pay off) _______________________________________________ 5. 无论你作什么决定,我都支持你。(in favor of) _______________________________________________ 答案 1. We are cast down by the news that there is a severe drought in the northern China. 2. The pedestrians are forbidden to cross the road when the traffic lights turn red. 3. Many people object to such a product being advertised on TV. 4. All those weeks of studying will pay off when you take the exam. 5. Whatever decision you make, I will be in favor of you.


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