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2018届新课标英语艺考生文化课冲刺课件Unit18(共25张PPT)

时间:2018-02-14


Unit Eighteen
Ⅰ. 重点词汇必背 每个单元20个,其中重点单词 15个,重点短语5个。 Ⅱ. 核心词汇运用 从本单元的重点词汇中选出核 心单词7个和核心短语3个进行了精讲。 Ⅲ. 语法突破 对高考的各语法知识点进行精讲, 并对该考点进行分析和训练。 或Ⅲ. 题型突破 对高考中的题型的进行分析,对 它的解法进行归纳,并对该题型进行针对性训练。 Ⅳ. 作文模板必背 针对高考各话题列出模板,供 考生记忆。 另配有【冲刺练】单元综合练习 是对命题的一 种预测和对高考试题的提前演练。

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一、重点单词 1. forbid [f?'bid] v. 禁止;不许 2. force [f?:s] v. 强迫,迫使;夺取 n. 力;力量;势力;威力;武力 3. foreign ['f?: r?n] adj. 外国的 4. forget [f?'get] v. 忘记;遗忘;忘掉 5. forgive [f?'giv] v. 原谅,宽恕 6. fortunate ['f?:t??nit] adj. 幸运的;侥幸的 7. fortune ['f?:t??:n] n. 大量财产;运气;财富;成功 8. freedom ['fri:d?m] n. 自由 9. freeze [fri:z] v.(使)结冰;(使)凝固;(使)冻僵;愣住;冷藏;冻结 10. frighten ['fraitn] v. 使惊恐,吓唬 11. function ['f??k??n] n. 作用,功能;职责 v. 运转,起作用 12. furniture ['f?:nit??] n.(总称)家具;装备 13. garage ['g?ra:?] n. 汽车修理厂;汽车库;汽车间 14. gather ['g???] v. 聚集,采集,收集 15. generous ['d?en?r?s] adj. 慷慨的;宽大的;大方的;丰富的 二、重点短语 16. get on well with sb. 与某人相处融洽 17. get to 到达 18. give up 放弃,戒掉 19. glance at 看一下,瞥一眼

一、重点单词 1. forbid v. 禁止;不许
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 构词 forbiddance n. 禁止,禁令 用法 forbid sb. to do 禁止某人做?? Forbidden City 紫禁城,故宫 例句 I forbid you to call me late at night. 我禁止你在深夜给我打电话。 操练 根据句子要求,完成句子。 (1) 这间办公室禁止吸烟。 Smoking __________ in this office. (2) 我的父母不许我在外面过夜。 My parents __________ me _________ stay out at night. (3) 他不许离开国家。 He __________ from leaving the country. Keys: (1) is forbidden (2) forbid, to (3) is forbidden

2. force v. 强迫,迫使;夺取 n. 力;力 量;势力;威力;武力
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 构词 forceful adj. 有力的,强烈的 用法 force sb. to do sth.强迫??做 come into force 开始生效,开始实行 例句 No power on earth could force me to do it. 谁也不能强迫我做这事。 操练 根据句子要求,完成句子。 (1) 如果有必要的话,我们会用武力解决这个问题。 We’ll settle the problem __________ if necessary. (2) 新法规下月实施。 The new law __________ next month. (3) 农业劳动力正在不断减少。 The farm __________ is running down steadily.

3. forget v. 忘记;遗忘;忘掉
? 构词 过去式: forgot ? 过去分词: forgotten / forgot ? forgetful adj. 健忘的;疏忽的 forget-me-not 勿忘我(花) ? 用法 forget doing sth. 做了某事而把它忘记了 ? forget to do 要做而忘记做 ? 例句 That was a moment that I shall never forget. ? 那个时刻我永远不会忘记。 ? 操练 根据句子要求,完成句子。 ? (1) 我几乎忘记付电话费用。 ? I almost __________ pay the phone bill. ? (2) 我忘了我做过作业。 ? I __________ my homework.

4. fortune n. 大量财产;运气; 财富;成功
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? fortunate adj. 幸运的,侥幸的 fortunately adv.幸运地,侥幸地 fortune-teller 算命者 用法 make a fortune 发财 try one’s fortune 碰运 例句 Ye Bo had made a fortune in beef. 叶波靠卖牛肉发财了。 操练 根据句子要求,完成句子。 (1) 他在另一个城市碰碰运气。 He __________ in another city. (2) 他梦想发大财。 He dreamed of __________ a fortune. (3) 他真是一个幸运儿。 He is really a __________. 构词

5. freedom n. 自由
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? free adj.自由的;免费的 v.释放;使自由;使摆脱 freely adv. 自由地 用法 struggle for freedom 为自由而斗争 freedom of speech 言论自由 set sth. free 释放?? 例句 Please set the bird free. 请把鸟放掉吧。 操练 根据句子要求,完成句子。 (1) 约翰·布朗为争取自由而献出自己的一切。 John Brown devoted himself to the struggle __________________. (2) 他不能自由地选择他自己的事业。 He was not __________ choose his own career. (3) 他的年老双亲无忧无虑。 His elderly parents are _________ care. Keys: (1) for freedom (2)free to (3) free from 构词

6. freeze v.(使)结冰;(使)凝固; (使)冻僵;愣住;冷藏;冻结 n. 冷藏; 冻结
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 构词 过去式: froze 过去分词: frozen 用法 freeze to death 冻死 freeze with cold 冷得结冰 freeze with fright 吓呆 例句 I will freeze the fish and save it for later. 我要把这条鱼冻上,留着过后吃。 操练 根据句子要求,完成句子。 (1) 退休工人要求冻结物价。 The retired workers demanded a __________ prices. (2) 低温会把我的花冻死。 The low temperature will __________ my flowers. (3) 警卫喊道:“不许动。” The guarder shouted, “__________”. Keys: (1) freeze on (2) freeze (3) Freeze

7. frighten v. 使惊恐,吓唬
? 构词 frightened adj. 受惊的 ? frightening adj. 令人恐惧的;令人害怕的 ? 用法 frighten sb. to death 把某人吓得要死 ? be frightened at/with/by被某一突然出现的人或物所 惊吓 ? 例句 The child was frightened by the fierce dog. ? 那个小孩被恶狗吓坏了。 ? 操练 根据句子要求,完成句子。 ? (1) 这真是一场令人恐惧的经历。 ? It’s really a __________ experience. ? (2) 这个受惊的孩子紧紧地抓着妈妈的胳膊。 ? The __________ child gripped his mother’s arm. ? (3) 他们百般恫吓,依然无效。

二、重点短语
8. get to 到达
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 比较 arrive in/at... =reach =get to 到达 get to know 增进(彼此间的)了解 例句 Keep straight on until you get to the church. 一直朝前走,就到教堂了。 操练 填入适当的词使句子完整。 (1) 你必须准时赶到车站。 You must _________ the station on time. (2) 你一旦了解她,就喜欢她了。 You’ll like her once you _________ her. (3) 让我们言归正传。 Let’s __________ the point. Keys: (1) get to/reach/arrive at (2) get to know (3) get to

9. give up 放弃,戒掉
? 比较 abandon 强调永远或完全放弃或抛弃人或事物等,这 可能是被迫 的,也可能是自愿的。 ? give up 普通用语,侧重指没有希望或因外界压力而放 弃。 ? 例句 You ought to give up smoking; I gave it up last year. ? 你应该戒烟,我去年就戒掉了。 ? 操练 填入适当的词使句子完整。 ? (1) 那些自暴自弃的人无法成功。 ? Those who __________ themselves to despair can not succeed. ? (2) 医生们已放弃了治愈她的希望,而她却恢复得很好。 ? The doctors had _________ her _________ but she made a remarkable recovery. ? (3) 她不会轻易放弃的,因为她是真正的战士。

10. glance at 看一下,瞥一眼
? 比较 glance through 浏览 ? glare at 向人瞪眼,怒目而视 ? stare at 凝视 ? 例句 He glanced at the envelope and recognized his uncle’s handwriting. ? 他瞥了一眼那个信封,认出是他叔父的笔迹。 ? 操练 填入适当的词组使句子完整。 ? (1) 她羞怯地偷看了他一下,随即垂下眼帘。 ? She _________ shyly _________ him and then lowered her eyes. ? (2) 盯着别人看是不礼貌的。 ? It is rude to __________ other people. ? (3) 他们站在那,互相怒视着对方。 ? They stood there, __________ each other.

一、定语从句的概念及关系词
概念 一个句子在句中做定语, 修饰一个名词或代词,这 关系代词 个句子就叫做定语从句。 被修饰的名词或代词叫先 行词。引导定语从句的词 关系副词 叫关系词。 关系词 作用 引导定语从句;代替先 who, whom, whose, that, 行词;在从句中作主语、 which, as 宾语或定语。 when, where, why 引导定语从句;代替先 行词;在从句中作状语。

关系代词 修饰 二、关系代词引导的定语从句 which that who whom whose 物 物 人 人 人 物 人

句子成分 主、宾 主、宾 主、宾 主、宾 宾 定 定

? 三、关系副词引导的定语从句
关系副词 when where why 修饰 时间 地点 原因 句子成分 时间状语 地点状语 原因状语

【注意】 关系副词一般可以用“介词+关系代词which”替换。 四、限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句
定语分类 形 从句 上 限 制主 性 定句 语 从间 句 有 号 非 限主 制 性句 定 语用 从句 号 开 式意义上 关系词的使用上

从是先行词作宾语时可省略;可用that;可用who代替whom作宾语。 之不可缺少 没的 定 语 , 逗不能删。
从只是对先作宾语时不可省略 ;指物时只用 which;指人作宾语时只 间行词补充用whom。 逗说 明 , 删 分后意思仍 完整。

? 五、关系代词作介词宾语的定语从句
情况 介词和 关系代介词可提前:动词和介词分开,意思清楚。 词引导介词不能提前:动词和介词分开没有原词组的意思。 的定语介词+关系代词which常用来代替关系副词。 从句的some,any,none,both,all,neither, most,each,few+of+关系代词表“其中 几种情的……”。 况

? 六、关系代词as,which引导非限制性定语从句的对比
共同处 不同处

差异 在非限制性定语从句中作主语或宾语,代表前面整个句子。
as引导的非限制性定语从句,可放在主句前,或后,甚至可放在中 间;which引导的非限制性定语从句只能放在主句后。 as有“正如……,正像……”之意。 先行词有such,the same修饰时,常用as。

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? 七、定语从句和同位语从句的对比
定语从句 同位语从句 从句意思不完整。 从句意思完整。 that是关系代词,代替先行词,在从句中作 that是连词,只起连接主句与从句的作用,不充当 主语或宾语。 句中任何成分。 从句修饰先行词,对先行词加以限定,描述 从句说明名词的内容。 定语的性质或特征。 that作宾语时可省略。 几乎任何名词都可以带定语从句。 that不能省略。 一般只有抽象名词才能带同位语从句。

? 八、关系代词that和which的用法对比
that/which 通用处 不可通用处 用that的情况 修饰物,在定 先行词是anything,everything,nothing (something除 语从句中作 外),few,all,none,little,some等时。 主语、宾语 先行词有every,any,all,some,no,little,few,much等修饰时。

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用which的情况

先行词被序数词或最高级修饰时。 先行词有the very,the only,the same,the last等修饰时。 先行词既有人,也有物时。 先行词前面有which疑问词时。 关系代词在从句中作表语时。 在非限制性定语从句中。 作介词宾语时。 一个句子中若有两个定语从句,一个用that引导,另一个则用 which引导。

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【定语从句高考考点分析】
? 下面是近几年高考题对定语从句的考查。通过这些题,我们来分析一下定语从句 的用法和考点主要分布情况。 ? 1.(2011广东卷)... Behind him were other people to 21 he waws trying to talk, but after some minutes 22 walked away and sat near me, looking annoyed… ? 【分析】21. whom,22. he 。根据搭配:talk to sb. 先行词other people指人, 又在介词to后做宾语,故只能用whom。 ? 2.(2012广东卷)Of course whenever they turned to look at him, they had to look at Mary, __22__ made her feel like a star. ? 【分析】which。关系代词which在非限制性定语从句中作主语,先行词是前面 的句子。在非限制性定语从句中只能用which,不能用that。

【定语从句高考考点分析】
? 3.(2013广东卷)Nick’s guests, 20 had heard their conversation, asked why they should not buy salt more cheaply if they could. ? 【分析】who。关系代词who在非限制性定语从句中作主语,先行词是 guests,指人。 ? 4.(2014广东卷)The next day, my brother and I went to the beach 24 we watched some people play volleyball. ? 【分析】where。考查定语从句。beach是先行词,where引导的是 定语从句,它在从句中作地点状语。 ? 5.(2014全国卷I)Maybe you leave a habit 67 is driving your family crazy. ? 【分析】that/which。关系代词that/which在定语从句中作主语, 先行词是a habit。

【定语从句高考考点分析】
? 6.(2015全国卷I)I’d skipped nearby Guilin, a dream place for tourists seeking the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River 64 are pictured by artists in so many Chinese _65 (painting). ? 【分析】64.that/which。关系代词that/which在定语从句中 作主语,先行词是the limestone mountain tops and dark waters。 ? 7.(2016年全国卷 Ⅰ )But my connection with pandas goes back 64my days on a TV show in the mid-1980s,65 I was the first Western TV reporter66(permit) to film a special unit caring for pandas rescued from starvation in the wild.? 2018/2/14 ? 【分析】65.when。非限制性定语从句,先行词是the mid-

【定语从句高考考点分析】
? 8.(2017全国卷Ⅰ)Like anything,it is possible to have too much of both, 70 is not good for the health. ? 【分析】 70.which。考查非限制性定语从句。句意:很可能摄 入过多的脂肪和盐,那对健康没有好处。分析可知which is not good for the health为非限制性定语从句,先行词为前文中的have too much of both“摄入过多的脂肪和盐”。故填which。 ? 从近几年的高考题中可以看出:定语从句的基本用法要掌握,既 考关系代词,也考关系副词。注意复习定语从句中的句子成分。

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【定语从句同步练习】
用适当的关系词填空。 1.Stephen Hawking believes that the earth is unlikely to be the only planet life has developed gradually. where (引导定语从句并在从句中作地点状语。) 2.I’ve become good friends with several of the students in my school I met in the English speech contest last year. who (引导定语从句并在从句中作met的宾语,先行词是表示人的 students,故用关系代词who。注意:先行词与关系代词之间被in my school 分隔开了,要注意分辨。) 3.As a child,Jack studied in a village school, is named after his grandfather. which (引导非限制性定语从句,并在定语从句中作主语,先行词是village school。) 4.I refuse to accept the blame for something was someone else’s fault. that (引导定语从句并在从句中作主语,先行词something指事物,多用 that。)

【定语从句同步练习】
5.That’s the new machine parts are too small to be seen. whose (引导定语从句并在从句中作定语,意思是“这台新机器的零部件 小得看不清”,故用whose。) 6.I saw this beautiful girl, smile just melted me and almost instantly gave me a completely new sense of what life is all about. whose (引导非限制性定语从句,指“那个女孩的”微笑。)

7.The long history of the Chinese Knot dates back to ancient times people first used knots for fastening,wrapping,hunting and fishing. when (引导定语从句,指代ancient times。) 8.They will fly to Washington, they plan to stay for two or three days. where (先行词为地点名词,并在定语从句中作状语。)
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【定语从句同步练习】
9.This is the very book I am looking for. that (先行词由the very修饰事物时,只能用关系代词that。) 10.All glitters is not gold. that (先行词是指物的all时,关系代词只能用that。)

11.I’ll never forget the day I spent my holiday in Hawaii. when (先行词是表示时间的词,且在定语从句中作状语,相当于on which, 故用关系副词。)
12.I’ll never forget the day I spent there. which/that (虽然先行词是表示时间的词,但在定语从句中作spent的宾 语,故用关系代词。)

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【定语从句同步练习】
13.The school I learned English was very large. where (先行词是表示地点的词,且在定语从句中作状语,用关系副词。) 14.The school I visited yesterday was very large. which/that (虽然先行词是表示地点的词,但在定语从句中作visited的 宾语,故用关系代词。)

15.Can you tell me the reason you were absent today? why (先行词是reason,在定语从句中作状语,相当于for which,故用关 系副词why。)
16.The reason he gave for not coming was that his mother didn’t allow him to. which/that (先行词虽然是reason,但在定语从句中作gave的宾语,故用 关系代词。)

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? ?

高考话题:合作产生力量 ----三个臭皮匠胜过一个诸葛亮(演讲稿)

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Ladies and gentlemen, It’s my honor to give a speech here. In my opinion, this proverb “Two heads are better than one” means making things easier by teamwork, which reveals the significance of cooperation. Once we were given a complicated physics problem and were expected to work it out whatever the way was.Naturally,everyone in our class was eager to be the first to finish it. Considering that I was good at identifying the physical principles and my friend Joe was better at performing complex calculations, we decided to work together.Magically,we solved the problem efficiently and even were better than the top student who chose to work alone. This experience really impressed me a lot. So always keep in mind that cooperation not only contributes to greater working efficiency but also explores our potential. Thank you!(108 words)


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