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状语从句重点难点归纳

时间:2014-12-03


Revision of Conjunctions 连词

一、概念

在句子中用来连接两个或两个以上的词、短 语或句子的词,叫连词。
二、分类
1. 按构成形式分类: 简单连词:and before after but 关联连词:both... and not... but either... or... neithe

r... nor... for

分词连词:considering that provided that providing that suppose that supposing that 复合连词:as if as though even if even though except that but that as/so long as

2. 按性质特点分类:并列连词和从属连词

并列连词:用来连接并列的词、短语和句子的连词。主要
表示两个分句之间的并列关系、转折关系、选择关系和因果关系 的连词。如:

属性 并列关系 选择关系 转折关系 因果关系

连接词 and, not only... but also..., neither...nor.. or, either... or..., otherwise, or else but, while, when, yet, still, however(副词) for, so, thus, therefore(副词)

从属连词: 用来引导从句,一般连接主句与从句并修饰 或说明主句的连词。从属连词通常引导名词性从 句和状语从句。 引导名词性从句的从属连词有:whether/if/that
Whether we will cancel evening classes depends on the coming education policy.

The reason why we will cancel evening classes is that students’ burdens are overloaded.

状语类别
时间

从属连词
when, whenever, as, while, before, after, till (until), since, ever since, once, as soon as, soon after, the moment, the minute, immediately等,each time, every time, last time, by the time no sooner…than, hardly…when where, wherever
because, as, since, considering/seeing that, now that

地点
原因

目的
结果 条件

so that, in order that, for fear that, in case, lest
so that, so…that, such… that, with the result that if, unless, as (so) long as, as (far) as, in case, suppose that, supposing that, provided/ providing that, on condition that as… as, not as (so)… as, than

比较

让步

though, although, even if, even though, as, however, whatever, whenever, wherever, whoever, whether…or, no matter who/what/which/where/when/whether/how
as, as if, as though

方式

Revision of the Adverbial Clauses 状语从句

九 种 状 语 从 句

1. 时间状语从句
2. 地点状语从句 3. 原因状语从句 4. 条件状语从句 5. 让步状语从句 6. 结果状语从句 7. 目的状语从句 8. 方式状语从句 9. 比较状语从句

九 1. 时间状语从句 种 常 when, while, as, before, after, since, once , 用 every time, each time, any time, the first/second…/last 的 time, by the time,, 状 语 as soon as, 一 从 句 the moment, the minute, the instant, the day 及 immediately, directly, instantly, 就 其 常 hardly/scarcely…when/before, no sooner…than , 用 的 till, until, not…until 连 接 区别 词

..... ......

九 种 2.地点状语从句 where, wherever 常 用 的 3. 原因状语从句 because, since, as, for, 状 now that, in that(因为) 语 从 considering that, seeing that 句 及 其 4. 条件状语从句 if, unless, as(so) long as, 常 假如;如果:on condition that, 用 provided that, providing that 的 suppose that supposing that 连 接 词

九 种 常 用 的 状 语 从 句 及 其 常 用 的 连 接 词

5. 让步状语从句
although, though, as, even though/even if, while(虽然), no matter +which/what/when/where/who/how, whichever, wherever, whatever, whoever, whenever, however, whether…or;

6. 结果状语从句 7. 目的状语从句 8. 方式状语从句 9. 比较状语从句

so that, so…that, such…that so that, in order that, in case, for fear (that…)(注意:虚拟) as(正如,正像), as if/as though than, as…as, not so/as…as,

the +比较级…, the +比较级…

用横线划出下列句子中的状语从句, 并指出是哪种状语从句:
让步 比较

方式 结果

条件 时间

? 1. Child as she is, she knows a lot of things. ? 2. The more I can do for the class, the happier I’ll be. ? 3. He talks as if (as though) he knew all about it. ? 4. He is such a good teacher that the students love and respect him. ? 5.I shall go to the park unless it rains. ? 6. No sooner had I got home than it began to rain.

用横线划出下列句子中的状语从 句,并指出是哪种状语从句:
地点 目的

原因 让步 时间 让步

? 7. Where there is water, there is life. ? 8. He studied hard so that he could catch up with his classmates. ? 9. Since you are very busy, I won't trouble you. ? 10. Even if (though) I fail. I’ll never lose heart. ? 11. Once you begin the work, you must continue. ? 12. Although the sun was shining, it wasn’t very warm..

? ? ? ? ?

1、when, while, as 的区别 2、it is …since… 和 it is…before… 3、because, as, for , since 的区别 4、状语从句倒装 5、状语从句的省略。

1. when, while, as (一)连接词when的用法小结

1. when可用来引导时间状语从句,意为“当……的时候”从句的 谓语动词可以是延续性的,也可以是终止性的。(区别while)如: When the film ended, they went back.

2. When 常用于下列句式: when为并列连词意为“就在这时”。 be doing …when be about to do…when be on the point of doing... when… had done…when

(二)连接词while的用法小结
1. while引导时间状语从句,意为“当……的时候”;从 句的动作必须是延续性的,(区别when) 如: Please don’t talk so loud while others are working. 2. while引导时间状语从句, 意为:趁…的情况赶紧做 Strike while the iron is hot. 3. while引导让步状语从句,意为“尽管,虽然”,相当 于although While I admit that the problems are difficult , I don’t agree that they can’t be solved. 4.while作为并列连词,意为“而,却”,表示对比。 Jane was dressed in brown while Mary was dressed in blue.

(三)连接词as的用法小结
1. as可用来引导时间状语,意为“一边…一边”; “随 着”
She sang as she walked home all the way. (一边…一边) She was doing her homework as she was listening to the music. As she grew older, she became more beautiful. (随着) As the day went on, the weather got worse.

2. as引导原因状语从句,意为“因为、由于”
As she is free today, she would like to do some shopping. Tired as he was, he refused to take a rest. (尽管) Hard as he worked, he can’t work out the problem. Child as he is, he knows a lot. Try as he might, he wouldn’t succeed. 注意:as从句通常将作表语的adj/n.、作状语的adv、 作谓语 的do(情态动词后的动词原形)提到句首, 但单数名词前的冠词必 须省略。)

3. as引导让步状语从句(从句必须倒装)意为“尽管”。

连接词when, while, as的用法区别: when, while, as这三个连词都可表示“当……的时候”。 1) When通常表示一个时间点,如: When he came in, we were having supper. 2) while则只表示一个时间段。它所引导的时间状语从句 中的时态常用进行时态。如: While he was eating his breakfast, he heard the doorbell ring.

3) as则强调主句和从句的动作在同一时间进行,表示 “一边…一边… ” ;也可表示“随着……”(with结构的互 换)。 She sang as she walked along. As the election approached, the violence got worse.

2. It is …before… 和 it is… since…

It is …before… 结构
1)It will be/+时间段+before… “要过……才会……” It will be two years before he leaves the country. 2)It was +时间段+before… “过了……才” It was three weeks before he came back 3)It will not be + 时间段 + before… “要不了…就会……” It won’t be long before she comes back 4)It was not +时间段 +before… “没过……就……” It wasn’t long before he left the country. 从句和主句的时态: 1. 一致:过去式 2.时态退一格:主句为将来时,从句为一般现在是

It is … since …结构
It is/has been+时间段+since…如: It is / has been three years since she joined the army. 主句和从句的时态: (1) 从句常用一般过去时 , 主句常用现在完成时或完成进 行时(表示时间段时,可用一般现在是)。 (2)固定句型: It is/has been+段时间+since+一般过去时。

3. because, as , for, since 表“因为” 的区 别
1、 because表示事情发生的直接原因或理由,它的语气很强。 He didn’t come to school yesterday because he was ill.

3种情况必须用 because
1)回答why的提问,必须用because。 —Why didn't he come yesterday? —________ he had something important to do. A.Because B.As C.Since D.For 2)当有only,, all, partly, merely 等强调词或not等否定词时, The two girls were late again, which was partly because they got up late. 3) 在强调原因状语从句时,只能用because。 It was because it rained hard that they put off the football match.

2、 since常表示对方已经知道的既成事实,说话人根 据这个事实得出某一种结论。其语气比because要弱, 一般译成“既然”。如: Since you are here, why not stay for a few more days?
3、 as常用于表示十分明显的原因,说明因果关系, 重点放在主句上,语气较弱,常译成“由于”。如: As it’s getting darker, we must go home now. 4、 for只是一个并列连词,用于连接两个并列句,表 示推理或解释,对前一个分句进行附加说明。如: It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet

4. 状语从句的倒装
1、So difficult _____ D it to live in an English-speaking country that I determined to learn English. (01 上海) A. I have felt B. have I felt C. I did feel D. did I feel 2、Not until all the fish died in the river _____ how serious the pollution was. (95 NMET)

A

A. did the villagers realize B. the villagers realized C. the villagers did realize D. didn’t the villagers realize

状语从句的倒装有哪些情况?

状语从句的倒装有哪些情况?
状语从句的倒装一般有下面几种情况: ① 否定词开头;not until

② so 加 adj/adv 或such +n 放开头;
③ as / though引导的让步状语从句

特别注意:
Hardly … when … / Scarcely … when… / No sooner ..than … (一…就…)
【注意倒装中的时态:过去完成时】

Child as he is, …
【注意倒装的部分是哪些部分,另外,当倒装的部分是单数 略】 可数名词,冠词必须省

Hardly had he got to the station when the train left. No sooner had he got to the station than the train left. Child as he is, he can speak seven foreign languages.

5. 状语从句的省略

C ? While watching TV, _________. A. the doorbell rang B. the doorbell rings C. we heard the door bell ring D. we heard the doorbell rings

什么时候可以省略?怎么省略?
1. Don’t speak until you are spoken to . 2. I’ll buy a TV set if it is necessary. spoken to necessary

3.She stood at the gate as if she was waiting for someone. waiting for someone
4. He was a swimmer when he was a child. a child 5. Though it is cold, he wore a shirt. Though cold, he were a shirt. 6. While I was walking alone in the street, my name was called. While walking alone in the street, my name was called.

alone walking the street , 7. While Iwalking was walking alone in the street, I heard my name called.

:什么时候可以省略?怎么省略? 在含有状语从句的复合句中若从句的主语是it或与 主句的主语相同,且从句中谓语中含有be时,常省 略从句的主语和be。 1._____________________ When/While in Beijing (在北京的时候), I paid a visit to the Summer Palace. When/As a young man 当是个年轻人的时候), 2. ______________________( Abraham Lincoln was a storekeeper and a postmaster. 3. He has no money. ______ If any (要是有的话), he will give us. Unless repaired 除非修理), the machine is of no use. 4._____________( 5. _______________________( If given more attention to 要是给更多的关注), The boy could have turned out better. 6. A girl stood at the gate of the school as if _________ _____________________( talking with a teacher 跟老师讲话).

再强调:
一、 在含有状语从句的复合句中 1.when,while,as, once,whenever引导的时 间状语从句; 2.if,unless引导的条件状语从句; 3.though,although,even if ,even though引 导的让步状语从句; 4.as though,as if,as引导的方式状语从句; 5. wherever引导的地点状语从句 若从句的主语是it或与主句的主语相同,且在 谓语中含有be时,常省略从句的主语和be。

特别强调

as if 引导的状语从句的省略

He shook his head as if (he was going) to say: “Don’t trust her”. 1. The man we followed suddenly stopped and looked as if ________ whether he was going in as if he was going to see whether the right direction. (NMET 2003 安徽春) A. seeing B. having seen C. to have seen D. to see

:省略在As if引导的方式状语从句中应用的较多.
1. Tom raised his hand as if (he ______________________ was going) to say something. _______ (好象要说什么) 2. He acted as if (he was) a fool. ___________ (好象他是个傻瓜) ___( 好象生气 3. She left the room hurriedly as if(_______ she was) angry. ) _________________________ 4.He stared at the girl as if (he was)了 seeing her for the first ___ ) time. ________(好象是第一次看到她 5.The player is rolling on the ground as if (he was ) hurt ___________ badly. ___ _______(好象严重受伤了). _______________________ 6. He opened the drawer as if (he was )in search of ____ ) something important. __________ _(好象在寻找重要的东西

: as if用于省略句中,如果as if 引导的从句 是“主语+系动词”结构,可省略主语和系动词, 这样as if 后就只剩下不定式、名词、形容词(短 语)、介词短语或分词。

:省略在As if引导的方式状语从句中应用的较多.
1. Tom raised his hand as if (he was going) to say something. 2. He acted as if (he was) a fool. 3. She left the room hurriedly as if( she was) angry. 4.He stared at the girl as if (he was) seeing her for the first time. 5.The player is rolling on the ground as if (he was ) hurt badly. 6. He opened the drawer as if (he was )in search of something important.

高考链接:

1. When first ________ to the market, these products enjoyed great success. (NMET 2004 全 国卷II) A. introducing B. introduced
C. introduce D. being introduced

2. It shames me to say it, but I told a lie when ________ at the meeting by my boss. (NMET 2004全国卷IV)
A. questioning B. having questioned C. questioned D. to be questioned

对比训练 1 A he heard this, he got very angry. 1. ____ 2. I met Lucy____ B I was walking along the river. C a child, he lived in the countryside. 3. ____ A. when B. while C. as

对比训练 2
A it began to 1. We were about to leave____ rain. 2. She thought I was talking about her son, ____, B in fact, I was talking about my son. 3. Hardly had I finished my composition A the bell rang. ____ A. when B. while C. as D. during

对比训练 3

B she is, she know a lot. 1. Child ____ B he was told. 2. He did the experiment ____ 3. The pianos in the other shop will be cheaper, but not ____ E good.
A. during B. as E. both B and C C. so D. though

对比训练 4 1. He would have a look at the bookstores ____ A he went to town. 2. We decide to finish the work on time, ____ C happens. 3. If we work with a strong will, we overcome any difficulty, ____ D great it is. B likes English. 4. I’ll give the book to ____ A. whenever B. whoever C. whatever D. however

对比训练 5
C we meet again. 1. It will be years ____ D I came to this town. 2. It is ten years ____ B I came to this town. 3. It is ten years ago ____ A. when B. that C. before D. since

对比训练 6 D it rains, the game will be played on 1. ____ time.

2. ____ B I was twenty, I had never been away
from my hometown. 3. ____ A he were there, he couldn’t help us. A. Even if B. Until C. Till D. Unless
even if / even though 主从句时态一致 不能放于句首

对比训练 7 B you left it. 1. Go and get your coat. It is ____ C you like. 2. You are free to go ____

A. there
C. wherever

B. where
D. when

对比训练 8 1. The article is written in such easy English A ____ all of us can read it. 2. The article is written in such easy English C all of us can read. ____ A. that B. which C. as D. so that

对比训练 9 1. If we work hard, we can overcome any B great it is. difficulty, no matter ____ 2. If we work hard, we can overcome any C great it is. difficulty, ____ 3. If we work hard, we can overcome any difficulty, ____ D difficulty it is. 4. If we work hard, we can overcome any A difficulty it is. difficulty, no matter ____ A. what B. how C. however D. whatever

延续性动词:指能够延续的动作 learn, study, work, stand, know, walk…. 终止性动词:表示不能延续的动作,这种动作发生后立即停止 open, die, close, begin, finish, come, arrive, buy, go…


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