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高考英语 虚拟语气考点复习讲义


高考英语虚拟语气历年考点分析-情态动词和虚拟语气历年典型题训练 费县实验中学:朱宗彩 虚拟语气在高考中的频率不高,主要考查以下 5 个方面: 考点一、含有 if 引导的状语从句的虚拟语气 考点二、虚拟语气省略 if 的倒装情况 考点三、名词性从句中的虚拟语气 考点四、混合虚拟条件句(错综虚拟条件句) 考点五、含蓄条件句 考点精讲 考点一、含有 if 引导的状语从句的虚拟语气 (1

)若与现在事实相反 从句形式为:_______________主句形式为:_______________ If he came here, he would/should/could/might help me. (2)若与过去事实相反 从句形式为:____________主句形式为:______________ If you had come here yesterday, you would/should/could/might have seen the expert. 3)若与将来事实相反句形式为:____________________/________________/_______________ . 主句形式为:______________If he met me, he would/should/could/might be very happy. If you should come here, you would/should/could/might meet many classmates. If we were to do that, we would/should/could/might make good preparation. 高考真题 1: It is hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I _____ in love at the age of seven, with the Melinda Cox Library in my hometown.(2002 上海) A.wouldn’t have fallen B. had not fallen C. should fall D. were to fall 考点二、虚拟语气省略 if 的倒装情况 注意:在 if 引导的虚拟条件句中,若有动词 were, should 或 had, 有时可以省略连词 if,而把这三个词放 在主语之前,变成倒装句。如 Were I a bird, I would fly. 高考真题 2: ______ fired, your health care and other benefits will not be immediately cut off. (2006 湖北) A. Would you be B. Should you be C. Could you be D. Might you be 高考真题 3: .______ it rain tomorrow, we would have to put off the visit to the Yangpu river.(1994 上海) A. Were B. Should C. Would D. Will 考点三、名词性从句中的虚拟语气 suggest, insist, request, demand, order 等表示“建议、坚持、要求、命令”等含义时,这些动词后面的宾语从 句要用虚拟语气,即“should+动词原形”(should 可省略)。 常见动词有: 一个 “坚持” (insist) 两个 “命令” ; (order, demand) 三个 “建议” ; (advise, suggest, propose) ; 四项 “要求”(demand, require, request, ask) 。 特别说明:suggest 当“建议”讲时,that 从句用虚拟语气,谓语动词要用(should)+动词原形; 当“暗示,说明,表明”讲时,不用虚拟语气,从句的谓语动词视情况而定。 He suggested that Mr. Smith __________________(invited) to the party. His pale look suggested that he __________(be)in poor health. insist 当“坚持要……”表示命令时,从句用虚拟语气,谓语动词用(should)+do; 当“坚持说,硬说”讲时, 不用虚拟语气,从句的谓语动词形视情况而定。 He insisted that the conference __________________(put off) till the next month. 典例 1 The look on his face suggested that he_____ angry and we______ him alone. A. was, left B. was, should leave C. should be, should leave D. should be, left 典例 2 He insisted that his suggestion ______ right and we______ the plan into practice as soon as possible.
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A. was, put B. was, must put C. should be, should put D. should be, put 上述动词的名词形式,如 suggestion, order, proposal, demand, request, advice, idea 等名词在句中作主语、表 语、宾语,并且后面出现表语从句、同位语从句时,从句用 should+do, should 可以省略。 如:It is requested that all the books __________________ to each school as soon as possible. 要求把所有的书尽快送到每个学校。 My suggestion is that we ___________(try) the experiment another way. It’s necessary/important/strange/surprising/ natural… that…句式表达了说话人的命令、要求、建议或者惊讶, 从句中应用 should+do,其中 should 可省略。 It is a pity/ a shame / no wonder 等+that 从句 It is suggested (decided, ordered, requested, etc) that… 典例 3 His suggestion is that the harvest_____ in before the rainy season comes. A. be got B. get C. should get D. got 考点四、混合虚拟条件句(错综虚拟条件句) 有时候,条件从句表示的动作和主句表示的动作发生的时间是不一致的(如一个是过去发生的,一个 是现在发生的) ,这时动词的形式要根据表示的时间来调整。 例如: If I had followed the doctor’s advice, I would be better now.如果我听了医生的建议,我现在可能就好多了. If you ___________ hard then, you _________in the university now.如果那时你努力一些,你现在就上大学了. If the doctor ______sooner last night, the patient _______ alive now.如果医生昨晚能早来一会儿,病人现在可能 就活下来了. 考点五、含蓄虚拟条件句: 有时一个假设的情况并不用条件从句表示,而用其它方式来表示,这样的句子叫含蓄条件句。主要有以下 几种情况。 1) 用 with, without,but for 等介词短语来替代条件从句, 它们都可以转换成由 if 引导的虚拟条件句。如: We might have died without your help. =We might have died if you hadn’t helped us. Without the sun, nothing would grow. = __________________________________..没有太阳, 万物都不能生长。 2) 用 or, otherwise, but that, suppose/ supposing (that), provided / providing (that) 等引导的虚拟语气。如: You didn’t come yesterday, or you__________________him.你昨天没有来,否则的话,你就已经看到他了。 I was very busy last week, otherwise I _____________________ you.我上周很忙,否则的话,我就来看你了。 _____________I was still a little child, I would study hard from now on. 假如我还是一个小孩子的话,我将从现在开始努力学习。 3) 通过上下文来表示虚拟:这种情况下,需要加以分析。 I would have given you more money, but I was so poor then. 我(那时如果有钱的话)就可以给你更多的钱了,但是我当时太穷了。 I would have called you, but I ______ your telephone number. 我本来可以给你打电话,但是我(那时)忘了你的电话号码。 4)由 should +动词原形或者 should/could/might have +过去分词构成的虚拟语气。 种情况下,虚拟条件句经常省略,而只剩下主句结构,如: I should have told you that, but I was afraid that you couldn’t accept the fact. 我本应该告诉你那件事,但我担心你不能接受这个事实。 在重点复习以上常考内容的基础上,请大家附带复习以下内容 1.as if 和 if only 所引导的虚拟语气 “as if ”所引导的从句表示与事实相反时用虚拟语气,与事实相同时不用虚拟语气。用虚拟语气时同 if 引导 的状语从句部分的虚拟语气形式。 “if only…”表示“要是……就好了”时使用虚拟语气。形式同 if 引导的状语从句的虚拟语气形式相同。 wish=if only+从句(从句谓语动词有三种形式)
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例如:I wish (ed) I could (would, might) go to the moon in a spaceship one day. 我希望有一天我能乘坐宇宙飞船登上月球. I wish (=If only) he _______us now.要是他现在能来看望我. I wish (If only) he had visited us last night.=I wish (If only) he could have visited us last night. 要是他昨晚能来看望我们就好了. 高考真题 4: When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it look as if _______.(1995 年全国) A. breaks B. has broken C. were broken D. had been broken 高考真题 5: If only he ______ quietly as the doctor instructed, he would not suffer so much now. A. lies B. lay C. had lain D. should lie 2.用介词 without, but for,otherwise 等代替条件句。 _______ water, there would be no life. ________you, we couldn’t have carried out the plan.要不是你的话我们(当时)无法实行那项计划。 高考真题 6: He hesitate for a moment before kicking the ball, otherwise he ______ a goal.(2001 上海春) A. had scored B. scored C. would score D. would have scored 高考真题 7: Without electricity human life ______ quite different today.(1991 全国) A. is B. will be C. would have been D. would be 高考真题 8: ______ more attention, the tree could have grown better. (1990 全国) A. Given B. To give C. Giving D. Having given 3. It’s (high) time that+主语+did 和 I’d rather 主语+did 都表达说话人的建议或愿望,表示将来的行为,属 于虚拟语气的一种。It is time we got up .该是起床的时间了. It is (high) time we should get up.该是我起床的时间了. 虚拟高考题 08-09 汇总 1.If their marketing plans succeed, they ____ their sales by 20 percent. A. will increase B. have been increasing C. have increased D. would be increasing 2 If the weather had been better, we could have had a picnic. But it ____ all day. A. rained B. rains C. has rained D. is raining 3 It was announced that only when the fire was under control ____ to return to their homes. A. the residents would be permitted B. had the residents been permitted C. would be residents be permitted D. the residents had been permitted 4 Thank you for all your hard work last week. I don’t think we ____ it without you. A. can manage B. could have managed C. could manage D. can have managed 5.---I’m sorry. I _______ at you the other day. ---Forget it. I was a bit out of control myself. A. shouldn’t shout B. shouldn’t have shouted C. mustn’t shout D. mustn’t have shouted 6.But for their help,we the program in time. A.can not finish B.will not finish C.had not finished D.could not have finished 7. But for the help of my English teacher, I the first prize in the English Writing Competition. A. would not win B. would not have won C. would win D. would have won 8.He did not regret saying what he did but felt that he _____ it differently. A. could express B. would express C. could have expressed D. must have expressed 9.The doctor recommended that you swim after eating a large meal. A. wouldn’t B. couldn’t C. needn’t D. shouldn’t 10. What a pity!Considering his ability and experience, he better.? A.need have done B.must have done? C.can have done D.might have done 11.Eliza remembers everything exactly as if it yesterday.? A.was happening B.happens C.has happenedD.happened
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12. fired,your health care and other benefits will not be immediately cut off.? A.Would you be B.Should you be C.Could you be D.Might you be 13. Don’t you think it necessary that he to Miami but to New York? —I agree,but the problem is he has refused to. A.will not be sent;that ? B.not be sent;that? C.should not be sent;what? D.should not send;what 14.I could have called you for help, but I ____ your number. A. couldn’t have remembered B. didn’t rememberC. should have remembered D. hadn’t remembered 15. She suggested to the police in the police station that Mr. Smith ____. A. stole the necklace B. should steal the necklace C. had stolen the necklace D. steal the necklace 16. My advice is that he ___ so much. A. not smoke B.doesn’t smoke C. won’t smoke D.must not smoke 17. It’s about time that you _____to study English. A. begin B. will begin C. have begun D. began 18. Tom insisted what he said ____ true and we insisted that he ____ and have a look. A.be; should go B.should be; would go C.was ;goD.was;would go 19. ___the fog, we should have reached the top of the hill. A.In spite of B. If there were no C. But for D. Because of 20.This printer is of good quality.If it _________ break down within the first year ,we would repair it at our expense. A would B should C could D might 21._______ it would stop snowing! A If only B only if C Even if D But for 22.How I wish I ______ that!Eerybody present was angry with me. A didn’t do B hadn’t done C wouldn’t do D wasn’t doing 23.________ it to clear up tomorrow,the tourists would climb to the top of the mountain to wait for the sun_______. A If ;to rise B Were;to rise C Should;to rise D Because; raising 24. _____ the expense, I _____ to Italy. A. If it were not, go B. Were it not for, would go C. Weren't it for, will go D. If it hadn't ;would have gone 25.His illness was too serious;otherwise he ________ saved. A could be B couldn’t have been C could have D could have been 26.----I have great difficulty working out this problem. -----_________ to me, you ______ less difficulty with this problem. A If you had listened,would have had B If you listened ,would have C Had you listened,would have D If you listen ,will have 27.-----Would you have called her up had it been possible? ------Yes,but I_______ busy doing my homework. A was B were C had been D would be 28.He acts as if he _______ the owner of the house. A will be B has been C is D were 29.How I wish it _____ !If it ______ in a few days,the crops would be saved. A will rain;rained B would rain; shpuld ain C should rain; rains D would rain;had rained 答案 1-5 AACBB 6-10DBCDD 11-15DBBBC 16-20 ADCCB 21-25ABBBD 26-29 CADB

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