幻灯片 103 D R _ word _ likely 1 likely: 1. adj. probable An incident likely to lead to war is reported on TV. 电视报导出一可能导致战争的事件。 2. adv. probably I shall very likely be here again next month. Pat

tern: It is likely that ? 很可能? It is highly likely that he will succeed. 幻灯片 104 D R _ word _ likely 2 likely, possible & probable 这些词都有“可能的”意思。 CF: likely 系常用词,指从表面迹象来看很有可能。例如: The likely outcome of the contest varies from moment to moment. 比赛结果每分钟可能都在变化。 possible 指由于有适当的条件和方法,某事可能发生或做到,强调客观上有可能,但常含 有实际希望很小的意思。例如: Is it possible to get to the city by train, or must I take a bus? 坐火车可以到这个城市去吗?还是我必须得坐公共汽车? 幻灯片 105 D R _ word _ likely 3 probable 语气比 possible 强,指有根据、合情理、值得相信的, 带有大概、很可能的意 思。例如: CF: It is probable that he has forgotten our appointment. 很可能他是忘了我们的约会了。 幻灯片 106 D R _ word _ do without 1 do without: manage to survive, continue, or succeed, although you do not have sth. you need I haven’t enough money to buy a car, so I’ll just have to do without. He can’t do without the services of a secretary. 幻灯片 107 D R _ word _ do without 2 Collocation: 摆脱;废除,取消 do away with do up 系上,扣上;修理;打扮

have something to do with 和?有关系 have nothing to do with 和?没有关系 幻灯片 108 D R _ word _ highly 1 highly: adv. 1) very Mr. Smith was a highly successful salesman. 2) to a high degree He speaks very highly of you. 出席这次会议的大部分人是受过高等教育的女性。 Most of the people present at the meeting are highly educated women. 幻灯片 109 D R _ word _ highly 2 highly & high 这两个词都表示“高高地” 。 CF: highly 指的是抽象意义上的“高” 。例如: 薪俸优厚的官员 a highly paid official think highly of sb. 器重某人 high 用作副词时,一般指的是具体意义上的“高” 。例如: 向高处瞄准 aim high search high and low 到处寻找 幻灯片 110 D R _ word _ highly 3 CF: 其他类似的例子还有: closely & close closely 细心地,严密地。例如: Watch what I do closely. 仔细观察我所做的。 The prisoners were closely guarded. 囚犯被严密看守着。 close 邻近。例如: He lives close to the school. 他住得离学校很近。 幻灯片 111 D R _ word _ put / turn the clock back put / turn the clock back:

return to a situation that used to exist, usually because the present situation is unpleasant The employment bill in which women are not allowed to take jobs will put the clock back fifty years. Forget all about it and look to the future; you can’t turn the clock back. 幻灯片 112 D R _ word _ bring about 1 bring about: cause to happen 这是怎么发生的? What brought it about? Some educators are hoping to bring about major changes in the educational system. Collocation: 产生;提出 bring forth 提前;提出 bring forward 教育;养育;提出 bring up 幻灯片 113 D R _ word _ bring about 2 Fill in the blanks with the phrases and change the form where necessary. 1. They proposed that the date of the congress be a few months. 2. The trees in the orchard many apples. 3. He was well 4. At the meeting the next morning, they many problems and discussed them one by one. brought forward _____________ bring forth _________ brought up _________. brought up / forward / forth 幻灯片 114 D R _ word _ inquire 1 inquire: 1. vt. ask to be told He inquired (of her) the reason for being late again. He asked for his key and inquired whether there had been any message for him. 2. vi. seek information by questioning 我打电话询问有关火车时刻的事情。

I rang up to inquire about train times. 幻灯片 115 D R _ word _ inquire 2 Collocation: 问候 inquire after 求见 inquire for 查究,调查 inquire into inquire, ask & question CF: 这些词都有“问,询问”的意思。 inquire 是较正式的书面用词,渴望知道某人或某事的确实情况。例如: 幻灯片 116 D R _ word _ inquire 3 He inquired your telephone number. 他询问你的电话号码。 ask 是最常用词, 指为了了解某人或某事而提出问题, 请别人解答或向别人打听消息。例 如: CF: Excuse me. May I ask you a question? 对不起,我能问你一个问题吗? question 指对某事不断提出问题,以便了解详细情况。例如: The suspect was questioned by the police. 警察审讯嫌疑人。 幻灯片 117 D R _ word _ initiative initiative: n. 1) ability to make decisions and take action without the help of others If you show that you have initiative, you will sooner or later be promoted. The workers are able to solve the problem on their own initiative. 2) used in the phrase “take the initiative” be the first person to take action to improve : a situation or relationship, esp. when other people are waiting for sb. else to do sth. He took the initiative in organizing a party after his brother’s wedding. 幻灯片 118 D R _ word _ rate rate: n. ? value, cost, speed, etc. measured by its relation to some other amount The world’s forests are disappearing at an even faster rate than experts have thought. 出生率是出生数与人口数之比。 The birth rate is the number of births compared to the number of the people.

2) of the (numbered) quality a first-rate performer; a second-rate comic 幻灯片 119 D R _ word _ ensure ensure: vt. make sure; guarantee The new treaty will ensure peace. 我不能确保他能及时到这儿。 I can’t ensure that he will be here in time. 幻灯片 120 D R _ word _ informed 1 informed: adj. knowing things; having all the information 随时告诉我新的发展。 Keep me informed of fresh development. He’s a well-informed man. inform, tell & instruct CF: 这些词都有“把某消息或某件事传达给别人”的意思。 inform 向某人传递信息, 特别适用于告知所发生的情况或有关资料(可以用于上级对下 级,也可以用于下级对上级的通知) 。例如: 幻灯片 121 D R _ word _ informed 2 I have just received a letter from my old school informing me that my former headmaster, Mr. Reginald Page, will be retiring next week. 我刚接到母校的一封信,通知我说我的老校长雷金纳德·佩奇先生将于下星期退休。 tell 最通用,最不正式。指把某事告诉某人。例如: CF: Glancing at her scornfully, he told her that the dress was sold. 他轻蔑地看了她一眼,告诉她说那件衣服卖掉了。 幻灯片 122 D R _ word _ informed 3 instruct 较正式,意为“指示(一般用于上级对下级) ,通知” 。例如: CF: The editor at once sent the journalist a telegram instructing him to find out the exact number of steps and the height of the wall. 编辑立即给这位记者发了一份电报,叫他查明台阶的准确数目以及围墙的高度。 幻灯片 123 D R _ word _ steady steady: adj. 1) constant; regular in movement The government’ policies have brought a period of steady economic growth with falling s unemployment. There has been a steady growth in the industry.

2) firm Using the razor requires a steady hand. 幻灯片 124 D R _ word _ basis 1 basis: (pl. bases) n. 1) facts or ideas from which sth. can be developed; foundation (usu. used as a singular noun, followed by for or of ) The writing is full of arguments that have a firm basis. What is the basis for your opinion? 2) circumstance that provides a reason for some action or opinion (usu. followed by of or that-clause) On the basis that recognizing the problem is halfway to a solution, we should pay much attention to his comments. 幻灯片 125 D R _ word _ basis 2 基于我们售货的预测,我们明年将开始赚钱。 On the basis of our sales forecasts, we may begin to make a profit next year. basis, base & foundation 这些词都有“基础,根基”的意思 CF: basis 多用于比喻,指信念、议论等的根据。例如: Charity toward others is the basis of her philosophy. 慈善待人是她人生观的基点。 幻灯片 126 D R _ word _ basis 3 base 多用于指有形的或具体的基地或根基,尤指军事或工业方面的基地。例如: CF: We picnicked at the base of the mountain. 我们在山脚下野餐。 The lamp stands on a circular base. 那盏灯由圆形底座支撑。 foundation 强调基础的稳固与坚牢,可用于比喻。例如: Those thoughts rocked her assurance to its foundations. 那些想法从根本上动摇了她的信念。 The huge lorries shock the house to its foundations. 大卡车驶过,连屋基都震动了。 幻灯片 127 D R _ word _ lie in lie in: exist or be found in (sth.) The root of all these events lay in history. 这部戏剧令人感兴趣的地方在于它提出了一些婚姻方面的问题。 The play’s interest lies in the questions it raises about marriage. 幻灯片 128

D R _ word _ in terms of in terms of: as regards (sth.); expressed as (sth.) In terms of salary, the job is terrible. 以百分数回答这个问题。 Give the answer in terms of a percentage. 幻灯片 129 D R _ word _ tend tend: 1. vi. be likely to happen or have a particular characteristic or effect Some people tend to get up later at weekends. 物价正在上涨。 Prices are tending upwards. 2. vt. watch over; attend to shepherds tending their flocks tend the sick and wounded 幻灯片 130 D R _ word _ precise precise: adj. 1) exact We will never know the precise details of his death. Our train leaves at about half past ten, or — to be precise — 10:33. 2) taking care to be exact and not to make errors 他是个非常谨慎的人。 He is a very precise man. 幻灯片 131 D R _ word _ grasp 1 grasp: 1. v. 1) understand This is a concept we in the West find difficult to grasp. 2) seize firmly The drowning man grasped the rope. 贪得无厌的人可能毫无所得。 A man who grasps at too much may lose everything. 幻灯片 132 D R _ word _ grasp 2 2. n. power of grasping 这个作品我看不懂。 This work is beyond my grasp. Success is within her grasp. 幻灯片 133 D R _ word _ sufficient sufficient: adj.

enough $30 should be sufficient for a new pair of shoes. 有足够的证据证明他是有罪的。 There was sufficient evidence to prove that he was guilty. 幻灯片 134 D R _ word _ convey convey: vt. 1) make (ideas, feelings, etc.) known to another 我无法用言语表达我的感情。 I can’t convey my feelings in words. This picture will convey to you some idea of the beauty of the scenery. 这幅画可将那处风景的美丽向你传达一二。 2) take; carry This train conveys both passengers and goods. 幻灯片 135 D R _ word _ put across 1 put across: cause to be understood 他非常善于表达自己的意见。 He’s very good at putting his ideas across. Good teachers are the ones who are able to put things across well. 幻灯片 136 D R _ word _ put across 2 Collocation: 储存(钱、时间) ;把?放在一边 put aside put forward 提出(意见、建议) put in 花费,付出(时间、精力等) put off 阻止;推迟 put on 穿上 put out 熄灭 为?接通电话 put through put up with 忍受 幻灯片 137 D R _ word _ proportion 1 proportion: n. 1) part of a group or an amount

A large proportion of the dolphins in that area will eventually die because of water pollution. 这个城市的很大一部分人已年过半百。 A large proportion of the city’s population is aged over 50. 2) relation of one thing to another in quantity, size, etc. The proportion of men to women in the medical profession has changed in recent years. 幻灯片 138 D R _ word _ proportion 2 Collocation: 与?成比例;和?相比 in proportion to in direct proportion to 与?成正比例 in inverse proportion to 与?成反比例 in proportion 符合比例的 out of proportion 不成比例的 幻灯片 139 D R _ word _ fit into fit into: be part of a situation, system, or plan The new college courses fit into a national education plan. College English videos are designed to fit into the syllabus. 幻灯片 140 D R _ word _ educate educate: vt. teach or train You should educate your children to behave well. 这个男孩只能在工作做完后晚上自修。 The boy had to educate himself in the evening after finishing his work. 幻灯片 141 D R _ word _ entertain entertain: v. 1) give pleasure (to) Children’s television programs not only entertain but also teach. 我们都对他的戏法感兴趣。 We were all entertained by his tricks. 2) receive (people) as guests According to the school regulations, women students are not allowed to entertain men in their rooms. The Smiths entertain a great deal. 幻灯片 142

D R _ word _ contact 1 contact: 1. vt. get in touch with Feel free to contact us if you need my help. 2. n. touching or communication We can learn much by being brought into contact with other minds. 他在加拿大期间,曾结识了许多对他有益的社会人士。 He made many useful social contacts while he was in Canada. 幻灯片 143 D R _ word _ contact 2 contact, contrast & contract 这些词形式相似,意思却不同。 contact 接触,联系 contrast 对比,对照 contract 订合同,订契约 CF: Fill in the blanks with the above words and change the form where necessary. 1. Research is more mentally fatiguing, with physical labour. 2. They have to build a railway across Africa. 3. I must my lawyer before I made my final decisions. contrasted _________ contracted _________ contact ______ 幻灯片 145 A R _ Useful Expressions 1 Useful Expressions in the last hundred years 1. 在过去的一百年间 go back to 2. 回到 3. 享有特权的少数人 a privileged minority the present government 4. 当今政府 basic science 5. 基础科学 6. 全球政府 a global state 7. 民主社会 a democratic society 幻灯片 146

A R _ Useful Expressions 2 make informed decisions the standard of living cartoon figures science fictions acid rain greenhouse effect nuclear weapons 幻灯片 147 A R _ Useful Expressions 3 genetic engineering 15. 基因工程 learn by rote 16. 死记硬背 17. 使销量减半 halve the sales molecular biology 18. 分子生物学 alien civilization 19. 外星文明 20. 对?充满信心 have sufficient faith in ? 幻灯片 192 S R _ Reading _ word _ deadline deadline: n. point in time by which sth. must be done I’m afraid you’ve missed the deadline — the deadline for applications was May 30th. 在周五的最后期限之前完成将是非常困难的。 Friday’s deadline is going to be very difficult to meet. 幻灯片 193 S R _ Reading _ Sentence _ Imagine the hopes ? cancer Imagine the hopes raised in the millions battling cancer. Paraphrase the sentence: Imagine what a great encouragement it is for the millions of patients who are fighting against cancer. 幻灯片 194 S R _ Reading _ Sentence _ science doesn’t ? way Science doesn’t work that way. Paraphrase the sentence: Science doesn’t operate that way. 幻灯片 195 S R _ Reading _ Sentence _ It rarely ? answers It rarely arrives at final answers. Paraphrase the sentence:

Seldom does science enable us to arrive at ultimate solutions. 幻灯片 196 S R _ Reading _ word _ victim victim: n. sb. who has been hurt or killed by sb. / sth.; sb. who suffers because of sth. bad that happens or because of an illness 孩子们是这场打斗的无辜受害者。 The children were the innocent victims of the fighting. He was the victim of an administrative error. 幻灯片 197 S R _ Reading _ word _ frustrate frustrate: vt. cause (sb.) to feel discouraged or disappointed; prevent (sb.) from doing or achieving sth. Some websites are not tested adequately and consequently carry bugs that frustrate visitors. 由于大雪,他们登上顶峰的努力失败了。 They were frustrated in their efforts to reach the summit by heavy snowfall. 幻灯片 198 S R _ Reading _ word _ yield yield: vt. reveal; produce or provide 双方的会谈没有取得成果。 Talks between the two sides have yielded no results. The agency finally yielded consent to his application. 幻灯片 199 S R _ Reading _ word _ step by step step by step: gradually The career counselor guided Elle step by step through her planning for gaining admission to a graduate program in psychology. step-by-step: adj. gradual 该教科书是以其循序渐进介绍英语语法而众所周知。 The textbook is well known for its step-by-step introduction to English grammar. 幻灯片 200 S R _ Reading _ word _ outcome outcome: n. result One current educational approach which has not received a lot of attention is outcome-based education. 在记者招待会上将会公布谈判的结果。 The outcome of the negotiations will be announced at a press conference. 幻灯片 201

S R _ Reading _ word _ gradual gradual: adj. happening or developing slowly and by degrees Some people favour a gradual switch from the Microsoft system to open source. 这一过程是悄然发生、循序渐进且无法避免的。 This process is quiet, gradual and inevitable. 幻灯片 202 S R _ Reading _ word _ process process: n. connected series of actions, changes, etc. 减肥是一个缓慢的,渐进的过程。 Losing weight is a slow, gradual process. I think life itself is a learning process. 幻灯片 203 S R _ Reading _ word _ conclusion conclusion: n. belief or opinion that is the result of reasoning; end There are perhaps two main conclusions to be drawn from the above discussion. 我们是根据事实得出的结论。 We based our conclusion on facts. 会议是结束了,却取得很少进展。 At the conclusion of the meeting, little progress had been made. 幻灯片 204 S R _ Reading _ word _ propose propose: vt. put forward for consideration; suggest (used in the patterns: propose that ? ; propose doing sth.) 报告还建议延长高速公路。 The report also proposes extending the motorway. The government has proposed legislation to ban retailers from selling tobacco products to young people. In his speech he proposed that the UN should set up an emergency centre for the environment. 幻灯片 205 S R _ Reading _ word _ evaluate evaluate: vt. assess 您的工作将由管理团队的成员进行评估。 Your work will be evaluated by members of the management team. From books to Internet sites to television to scholarly journal articles, it is always important to critically evaluate information. 幻灯片 206 S R _ Reading _ word _ It’s the result ? best news It’s the result of course, that makes the best news — not the years of quiet work.

Translate the sentence into Chinese. 成为新闻热点的当然是结果,而非长年默默无闻的努力。 幻灯片 207 S R _ Reading _ word _ bulk bulk: n. the main or largest part; (largeness of) size 他注意到,活跃的社区成员大部分是女性。 He has noticed that the bulk of active community members are women. The bulk of the wealth of humanity is intangible, informational, and cultural. 幻灯片 208 S R _ Reading _ word _ submit submit: vt. offer for consideration (used in the pattern: submit sth. to sb.) 发展商向当地政府提交了建筑图,以获得批准。 The developers submitted building plans to the local government for approval. We have submitted proposals for a new curriculum to the Vice Chancellor. 幻灯片 209 S R _ Reading _ word _ publish publish: vt. make information available to people, especially in a book, magazine or newspaper, or produce and sell a book, magazine or newspaper They are publishing the dictionary on CD-ROM. 这个出版社主要出版教科书和其他教育材料。 The press publishes mainly textbooks and other educational materials. 幻灯片 210 S R _ Reading _ word _ professional professional: adj. of a profession He was a keen amateur photographer for many years before he turned professional. 这个网站提供免费和专业的语言翻译服务。 This website provides free and professional language translation service. 幻灯片 211 S R _ Reading _ word _ challenge challenge: 1. n. difficult or stimulating task; statement or action which questions (sth.) 我喜欢学习新事物的挑战。 I like the challenge of learning new things. Brian now faces the biggest challenge of his career. 2. v. give / send / be a challenge to We were challenging all the traditional methods of testing for poisons. 这种说法一直备受争议和质疑,但又似乎站得住脚。 That claim has been challenged and much debated, but it seems to hold up. 幻灯片 212 S R _ Reading _ word _ amount

amount: n. quantity; total sum My dog has an amount of nearly white hairs. 当你增加纤维的摄入量时, 要多饮液体, 这一点很重要。 It’s important to drink more fluids when you increase the amount of fiber you eat. 幻灯片 213 S R _ Reading _ word _ wear down wear down: (cause to) become smaller, weaker, etc. 多年内战拖垮了这个国家。 The country was worn down by years of civil war. The tires have worn down; they don’t grip as well as before. 幻灯片 214 S R _ Reading _ word _ organic organic: adj. relating to farming or gardening methods of growing food without using artificial chemicals, or produced or grown by these methods 有机水果一般更为昂贵。 Organic fruit is generally more expensive. Most supermarkets now sell organic produce. 幻灯片 215 S R _ Reading _ Sentence _ Like climbing ? fall back two Like climbing a mountain, we struggle up three feet and fall back two. Paraphrase the sentence. Just like in mountain climbing, progress is gradual, slowed by reverses. 幻灯片 216 S R _ Reading _ word _ somehow somehow: adv. in some way; by some means; for some reason that is not clear Still single in his fifties, he expected somehow to discover a woman who would love him. 他原本能按预定进度做完这件事的,但不知怎么却落后了。 He could have finished it on schedule, but somehow he fell behind. Somehow my tongue got tied and I failed to ask the film star for her autograph.


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