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高考英语突破书面表达素材

时间:2012-05-09


高考英语突破书面表达素材( 高考英语突破书面表达素材(二)
Part A 写作基本理论②巧妙转换句型,轻松应对写作 写作基本理论②巧妙转换句型, 在高考英语写作题中,由于时间的限制,许多考生写出的句子显得过于单调、呆板。其实,要想在有 限的时间里写出丰富、生动的句子并不难。只要对所学的英语句式加以转换,就一定能使写出来的句子更 加准确、得体、简洁、灵活。 一、词与词之间的转换 1. 形容词转换为名词 This painting is very valuable. 2. 动词转换为名词 Our hometown has changed a lot these years. 二、词与从句的转换 As he was tired and hungry, the boy was unwilling to move on. 三、非谓语动词与从句之间的转换 1. 动名词和从句的转换 When he arrives, please give me an e-mail. 2. 分词和从句的转换 (1) 现在分词与从句的转换 As he was lying in the grass, he thought of his parents living in the countryside. (2) 过去分词与从句的转换 Once it is seen, it will never be forgotten. 3. 不定式与从句的转换 He spoke louder so that the audience could hear him clearly. 四、独立主格与从句的转换 (1)If weather permits, we shall go there on foot. Weather permitting, we shall go there on foot.(逻辑主语+现在分词) (2)If everything is considered, his plan seems to be more workable. Everything taken into consideration, his plan seems to be more workable. (逻辑主语+过去分词) When this was done, we went home. This done, we went home. Given good luck, I will earn more money than all of you. Good luck given, I will earn more money than all of you. (3)Because there was nothing to do, we played games. There being nothing to do, we played games.(being 不可省略) 五、句与句之间的转换 1. 简单句与复合句的转换 The girl is spoken highly of. Her composition was well written. 2. 一般句式与强调句的转换 I graduated from the university last summer. 3. 条件句与祈使句的转换 If you go through the gate, you will find the entrance to Bear Country. 4. 宾语从句与状语从句的转换 I won't believe what he says. 六、 “二态”之间的转换 1. 时态的转换

The bell is ringing now. 2. 主动语态变为被动语态 People suggested that the meeting be put off. 七、其他形式的转换 1. 正常语序与倒装语序的转换 Though I'm weak I will make the effort. They will never give up the struggle for success 2. 陈述语气与虚拟语气的转换 The ship didn't sink with all on board because there were the efforts of the captain.

高考英语突破书面表达素材( 高考英语突破书面表达素材(三)
Part A 写作基本理论: 写作基本理论:
⒈学会使用较高级的词汇
词汇反映你知识贮存量的多少,也是衡量英语水平的一个重要标志。从评分标准可知, 词汇反映你知识贮存量的多少,也是衡量英语水平的一个重要标志。从评分标准可知,运用高级的词汇对提高书面表 达的分数至关重要。大家先来看下面这些句子: 达的分数至关重要。大家先来看下面这些句子:

提高书面表达的档次,争取得高分甚至满分

⑴Because the weather was good, our journey was comfortable. Thanks to the good weather, our journey was comfortable. ⑵We all think he is a great man. think highly of him. ⑶Suddenly I thought out a good idea. …came upon … A good idea occurred to me. /A good idea suddenly struck me. ⑷The students there needn’t pay for their books. Books are free for the students there. ⑸As a result the plan was a failure. The plan turned out (to be) a failure. ⑹When she heard he had died, she went pale with sorrow. At the news of his death, she went pale with sorrow. ⑺She went to Austria in order to study music. She went to Austria for/with the purpose of studying music. ⑻When he spoke, he felt more and more excited. The more he spoke, the more excited he felt. ⑼In our school, there are twenty–six classrooms. Our school is made up of twenty–six classrooms./Twenty–six classrooms make up our school. ⑽You can find my house easily. You’ll have no trouble/difficulty finding my house. ⒉学会使用较丰富的句式 在整篇文章中,避免只使用一两个句型,要灵活运用各种语法结构,运用得当的句子结构可以给文章 增色不少,从而使整篇文章因此而生辉。例如: ⑴When he arrives, please give me an e-mail.(使用 V-ing 形式) →On his arriving/ arrival, please give me an e-mail. ⑵To his surprise, the little girl knows so many things.(使用名词性从句) →What surprises him is that the little girl knows so many things. (That the littler girl knows so many things surprises him./It surprises him that the littler girl knows so many things .) ⑶Though I’m weak, I’ll make the effort. (使用倒装句)

→Weak as I am, I’ll make the effort. ⑷He did not know what had happened until he had read the news in the newspaper.(使用强调句型 ①.It was… ②.not until…) →①It was not until he had read the news in the newspaper that he knew what had happened. →②Not until he had read the news in the newspaper did he know what had happened. ⑸I passed the physics exam because of your help.(使用虚拟语气) →①I could not have passed the physics exam but for your help. →②If you had not helped me, I could not have passed the physics exam. ⑹She walked out of the lab and many students followed her. (用过去分词) →Followed by many students, she walked out of the lab. ⑺They sang and laughed as they went back to school.( 使用 V-ing 形式) →Singing and laughing, they went back to school. ⑻I won’t believe what he says. (使用状语从句) →No matter what he says, I won’t believe. ⑼If you study hard, you will make rapid progress. (使用并列句) →Study hard and you’ll make rapid progress. ⑽He had no sooner come back from Beijing than he was sent abroad. (使用倒装句) →No sooner had he come back from Beijing than he was sent abroad. ⒊学会使用恰当的连接词 使用恰当连接词,对写出一篇有“英语味”的文章很重要,能使整篇文章上下衔接自然、紧凑,使文 章有一定的流畅性,以使文章层次清晰,行文连贯。下面表格中是写作中经常用到的一些连接词。 逻辑角度 时间顺序 空间顺序 对称顺序 转折顺序 因果顺序 条件顺序 让步顺序 递进顺序 过渡性插入语 合适的过渡性词汇 first, second, then, finally/at last, immediately, suddenly , soon here, there, on one side…on the other side, in front of, at the back of, next to for one thing, for another thing, on one hand, on the other hand but, however, while, though, otherwise because, since, as, thanks to, as a result (of) as long as, so long as, on condition that, if, unless though, as, even if/though, whether, who(what, when, where)-ever what’s more, besides, to make the matter worse, what’s worse I think, I’m afraid, you know, As we all know

例如: ①On one side of the road there is a new classroom building. On the other side, where the playground used to be now stands another new building—our library. (NMET99 范文)②As far as I know, everyone is happy about this new arrangement of things.(NMET01 范文) ③What’s more, I can go to bed earlier. (NMET01 范文)

高考写作基本功训练(句子汉译英部分) 高考写作基本功训练(句子汉译英部分) 一句多译体验
1. 在他的帮助下,我终于完成了这项工作。 在他的帮助下,我终于完成了这项工作。

2.

块钱买这本字典。 我花了 50 块钱买这本字典。

3.

我会尽我所能去帮助他。 我会尽我所能去帮助他。

4.

____________(手里拿着书) He sat there, ____________(手里拿着书) 。

5.

走在大街上,他遇见了一个老朋友. 走在大街上,他遇见了一个老朋友. 街上

6.

____________( ,the ____________(从天空中看) the city looks beautiful.

由于不知道他的电话,他无法与 Tom 取得联系。 7. 。 8. Rewrite following sentences . ①.There is a girl. She is sitting between us. ②.This is a book. The book was bought yesterday. ③.They went for a walk on the street. They saw the old man. was passing by.

He was knocked down by a car. The car

高考英语突破书面表达素材( 高考英语突破书面表达素材(四)
Part A 写作基本理论⑤ 英文写作基础——动词 一) 写作基本理论⑤ 英文写作基础——动词(一 ——动词 写作的基础是词汇。词汇是表达思想的基本要素。 动词 文章是由句子组成的。每一个句子都少不了谓语。而担任谓语的是动词。对于一个很活跃的动词,我 们应该掌握以下几个方面: 一. 准确的读音和拼写 听得懂,说得出是写作的基础。只有掌握了正确读音,才能做到这一点。只有正确的拼写才能准确无 误地传达信息。太多的拼写错误会影响书面表达的得分。 二. 基本意义 三. 常用其它意义 除了基本意义之外,这些词在其它语境中还会有不同的意义,有自己的使用范畴。因此,只掌握基本 意义是不够的。 四. 常见搭配 我们所说的搭配,不仅包括动词与介词﹑副词的搭配,而且包括与名词搭配的意义。以动词 make 为 例。 make 的基本意义是 “制作” 而 make beds 意思是 , “整理床铺” make use of 意思是 , “利用” make money , 挣钱,make a fortune: “发财” ,make faces“做鬼脸”等等。 五. 过去式与过去分词 在书面表达中很少用到一般现在时,除非是表示规律性和反复发生的动作,当涉及时态时,就会用到 动词的过去式﹑过去分词和现在分词等形式。因此,熟练掌握一些常用不规则动词的过去式和过去分词是 非常必要的。这里,我们为同学们列出书面表达中经常使用的一些动词的形式。为了记忆方便,将它们分 成 AAA,ABB,AAB,ABA 和 ABC 五种形式。一个字母代表一种形式。 AAA: cut, set, cost, hurt, let, put, set, shut, spread, read ABB: bend – bent – bent bring – brought – brought build – built – built burn – burnt – burnt buy – bought – bought catch – caught – caught deal – dealt – dealt feed – fed – fed feel – felt – felt fight – fought – fought find – found – found get – got – got hang – hung – hung (挂) have – had – had hear - heard – heard hide – hid – hid hold – held – held keep – kept – kept lay – laid – laid lead – led – led leave – left – left lend – lent – lent light – lit – lit lose – lost – lost make – made – made mean – meant – meant meet – met – met pay – paid – paid say – said – said sell – sold – sold send – sent – sent shine – shone – shone shoot – shot –shot sit – sat – sat sleep – slept – slept spend – spent – spent stand – stood – stood stick – stuck – stuck sweep – swept – swept teach – taught – taught tell – told – told think – thought – thought understand – understood – understood win – won – won AAB: beat – beat – beaten

ABA: ABC:

become – became – become bear – bore – born blow – blew – blown draw – drew – drawn eat – ate – eaten forbid – forbade – forbidden forget – forgot – forgotten grow – grew – grown ride – rode – ridden see – saw – seen sink – sank – sunk swear – swore – sworn tear – tore – torn wear – wore – worn

come – came – come begin – began – begun break – broke – broken drink – drank – drunk fall – fell – fallen forgive – forgave – forgiven freeze – froze – frozen know – knew – known ring – rang – rung shake – shook – shaken speak – spoke – spoken swim – swam – swum throw – threw – thrown write – wrote – written

run – ran – run bite – bit – bitten do – did – done drive – drove – driven fly – flew – flown give – gave – given go – went – gone lie – lay – lain rise – rose – risen sing – sang – sung steal – stole – stolen take – took – taken wake – woke – woken

六. 及物动词与不及物动词 英语动词分为及物动词和不及物动词。 这一点与中文差别较大。 表达同样的意思时, 中文可以接宾语, 而英文却不行,需要更换另一个及物动词,或接介词。这种现象是很常见的。如: arrive(vi.) / reach( vt. ): When did you reach the top of the mountain? When did you arrive at the top of the mountain? sit / seat : He is sitting in the sofa. He seated himself in the sofa. / He is seated in the sofa. lie / lay: He was lying in bed. He laid himself in bed. rise / raise: The prices keep rising. I raised my voice but still couldn’t make myself heard. listen / hear: I asked him to listen to me carefully. Listen! Someone is knocking at the door. But I can’t hear anything. look / see: We looked at each other and smiled. Then I saw something strange. 此外, 常用不及物动词: come, go, run, walk, work, live, stay, sleep, travel, fight (against), think (of / about), speak (to)(speak English 除外),talk (to, with), happen, take place, break out, appear, agree (with), belong (to), insist (on), die, fail, succeed (in), knock (at), reply (to), rush, wait (for), worry (about) 七. 后接宾语的形式 在及物动词中,有些后面要求接不定式作宾语,有些要求接动词的 –ing 形式。要分类记忆。 v. + to do 1. wish to do 2. hope to do 3. promise to do 4. decide to do 5. refuse to do 6. agree to do 7. expect to do 8. manage to do 9. fail to do 10. prefer to do 11. plan to do 12. want to do 13. ought to do 14. have to do 15. used to do/be used to do 16. seem to do 17. would like to do 18. in order to do 19. so as to do 20. set out to do 21. make up one's mind to do 22. It takes sb. some time to do 23. be going to do 24. be about to do 25. happen to do 26. pretend to do/to have done/to be doing 27. be thought/believed /said /reported to do 28. have no choice but to do v. + doing 1. enjoy doing 2. risk doing 3. avoid doing 4. keep doing 5. practise doing 6. suggest doing / sb.'s doing / that sb. (should) do 7. miss doing 8. finish doing 9. allow / permit doing 10. delay doing

11. resist doing 13. mind doing / sb.'s doing / if sb. do 14. imagine doing

12. consider doing 15. deny doing

八. 瞬时动词 有些动作瞬间发生,不能延续。如:die, begin, start, join, enter, arrive, borrow, lend, buy, marry 等等。 I have arrived in Beijing for two days.( ) I have been in Beijing for two days. ( ) How long may I borrow the book? ( ) How long may I keep the book? ( ) They have married for ten years. ( ) They have been married for ten years. ( ) The film has begun for ten minutes.( ) The film has been on for ten minutes. ( ) How long have you bought the TV set? ( ) How long have you had the TV set? ( ) The writer has died for 2 years. ( ) The writer has been dead for 2 years. ( ) 以 take 为例: I. 基本意思为: “拿走﹑带走 ” 。还有“花时间﹑占据﹑乘交通工具”等多种意义。不规则动词,过去式 是 took, 过去分词为 taken。 1. Don’t forget to ~ your raincoat with you when you go out. (带走) 2. He was taken away by the police. (被动) 3. I’m sorry I took your bicycle by mistake. (拿) 4. It took us three hours to do the operation. (花时间) 5. If you ~ my advice, you’ll have no trouble doing it. (采纳) 6. Don’t ~ everything in the newspaper for granted. (认为) 7. I like the red blouse. I’ll ~ it. (买) 8. When are you taking your driving test?(参加) 9. Why not ~ a taxi? (乘) 10. Take the medicine three times a day. (服药) 11. 与某些名词连用,表示这个动作。 take a look = to look take a rest / (take a break) = to rest take a walk take a risk take a shower take a deep breath take advantage of II. 常见搭配 take notes take one’s temperature take care (of) take part (in) take an interest in take photos (of) take a seat take something as an example III. 常见的短语动词 1. take away: All his belongings have been taken away from him. 2. take back: I take back what I said. 3. take off: In spite of the bad weather, the plane took off on time. Mum asked me to take off my shoes. I went to an exhibition, so I took a few days off. 4. take on : The old city has taken on a new look. 5. take out: He took out a newspaper and began to read.


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