Intercultural Communication
An Introduction

An Overview of the course
? Name:Intercultural Communication ? Course Number:1050200027 Designed for: English Majors ? Credit: 2 ? Class hour: 32

Course Evaluation :
? All students are governed by the regulations and guidelines established by Xing Zhi College, Zhejiang Normal University. The final grade will be based on an accumulation of points earned on class attendance and participation, written assignments and final exam, the percentages of which are as follows: ? Class Attendance and Participation: 10% ? Written Assignments: 20 % ? Final Exam: 70 %

? Every student please logs in the ―nclass‖ website and signs in your own class with the unique registration key!

What Is Communication

Work in groups to identify as many types of communication as you can. Then try to figure out the criteria on which you base your classification.

? 1. An orator delivers a speech to a large Human gathering. communication Animal communication ? 2. A hen clucks to her chicks. ? 3. A farmer gives instructions to his Human-animal communication plough working cow. ? 4. A programmer issues commands to a Human-machine communication computer. ? 5. My washing machine receives commands from the built-in computer.
Machine-to-machine communication

? 1. there are at least two or more communicators, human or non-human; ? 2. there must be some contact between communicators; ? 3. there must be a language shared by communicators; ? 4. an exchange of information has taken place, however much it is.

What is IC intercultural communication?
? IC occurs whenever people of different cultural backgrounds come in contact with each other.

Why do we need to learn intercultural communication?

Specific course objectives of the ―IC‖ course:
? to know more about your own culture ? to know more about the culture of English-speaking countries, esp. United States ? To raise your awareness of intercultural difference ? to grow in your ability to interact effectively with people from other cultures, especially westerners ? to develop listening, speaking and reading skills related to culture and communication in an interactive class

? To show your respect to others and their cultures ? To earn others’ respect to you and your culture

What is culture?
? Culture is like the water a fish swims in.

Our Natural Cultural Context
? Like a fish in water

The Intercultural Condition – we become ―like a fish out of water‖

―Out of water‖ = Out of Context
? I’m like a schooled fish ? “Water” is my culture ? Other Waters or Air are “other cultural contexts” ? “I need my context to feel comfortable!”

What is culture?
? Culture is like an iceberg.
Objective Culture: History, Literature Customs Subjective culture: Attitudes Beliefs World views Social Axioms Values Oriantations

Definition of Culture
? Culture may be defined as what a society does and thinks. ---Sapir ? Culture is that which binds men together. ---Ruth Benedict ? Culture is a system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviors, and artifacts that the members of a society use to cope with their world and with one another, and that are transmitted from generation through learning. ---Bates and Plog ? We define culture as the deposit of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, actions, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe, and artifacts acquired by a group of people in the course of generations through individual and group striving. --- Samovar er al


Culture is the total way of life that (usually very large) group of people share.

Importance of Culture
? Culture is a particular way to satisfy human needs. ? Culture is man’s second nature, an effective way to overcome the essential vulnerability(unspeclization or deficiency) of human beings.

The theory of a five-type hierarchy of human needs:
Self-development and realization Self-esteem, recognization, status Sense of belongings, love Security, protection

hunger, thirst, sex, etc.

Abraham Maslow (1908-1970, American psychologist)

? Culture regulates our lives at every turn, and from the moment we are born until we die, there is —wether we are conscious of it or not—constant pressure upon us to follow certain types of behavior that other men have created for us. --- Clyde Kluckhohn (1905-1960, a cultural anthropologist)

? How can we be aware of our deep culture?

? ―People and their cultures perish in isolation, but they are born or reborn in contact with other men and women, with men and women of another culture, another creed, and another race. If we do not recognize our humanity in others, we will not recognize it in ourselves.‖ --- Carlos Fuentes

The Intercultural Attitude
? “Not Wrong, Just Different” ? Seeking to understand the cultural logic of each context. ? There are many kinds of footwear – each suited to its specific cultural context. ? Develop Intercultural Empathy – “Please first walk a mile in my moccasins (shoes).”

Perception: Sunglasses Metaphor
? “Seeing the world with different pairs of glasses” ? Cultivate an Adaptable Intercultural Perspective

Case study
? A: ? Shanghai: A Washington State agriculture official who was touring China a few years ago handed out bright green baseball caps at every stop without noticing that none of the men would put them on or that all women were giggling.

? B: ? A leading U.S. golf ball manufacturer targeted Japan as an important new market for its product, but even after heavy advertising, the sales of the company’s golf product were well below average. As it turned out, the firm had offered its product in white packaging, and in groups of four.

Consider Viewpoints
? Each is only “a view from a point”

? When we study a culture for communication purposes, we should focus on the dominant cultural pattern.
? When we compare cultural differences, we should concentrate on the major differences of two dominant patterns.

? Also we have to remember that individual differences always exist.

A Case Study

Cultural Notes:
? Americans like to do something unexpected



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